Initially used in the 1960's by Sydney Brenner to study the genetics of development and neurobiology. Early embryological studies of the nematode worm (roundworm) Caenorhabditis elegans (C.Elegans, so called because of its "elegant" curving movement) characterized the fate of each and every cell in the worm through all stages of development. This worm was the first to have its entire genome sequenced and also used recently in space experiments (see below).
The USA space shuttle Atlantis in November 2009 launched Caenorhabditis elegans into space as part of an experiment to study RNA interference and protein phosphorylation in a space environment.
- "RNA interference and protein phosphorylation in space environment using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (CERISE) is an experiment that addresses two scientific objectives. The first is to evaluate the effect of microgravity on ribonucleic acid (RNA) interference. The second is to study how the space environment effects protein phosphorylation (addition of a phosphate molecule) and signal transduction in the muscle fibers of gene knock-downed Caenorhabditis elegans."
- Links: original page
Some Recent Findings
Adult Hermaphrodite Gonad
Adult hermaphrodite gonad arm - A drawing representation of an adult hermaphrodite gonad arm. The progression of germ cell proliferation and meiosis are indicated by the arrows starting from the distal tip region of the gonad arm.
The features that differentiate the C. elegans male from the hermaphrodite arise during postembryonic development.
The two researchers, Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello, were investigating how gene expression is regulated in C. elegans and identified the novel regulation method of RNA interference (RNAi), gene silencing by double-stranded RNA. This discovery was awarded the 2006 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
- Links: 2006 Nobel Press Release
Embryonic Cell Lineages
The overview diagram above shows the fate of each individual cell in the developing c. elegans.
- Zygote (P0 cell) divides into two daughter cells (AB and P1 cells).
- These two daughter cells then divide into the next generation.
- the "X" indicates cells that die by apoptosis during development.
Note the above image is not at a readable resolution, to view see large readable version (10,389 × 1,336 pixels). Embryonic cell lineage developed by J .E. Sulston, E. Schierenberg, J. G. White, J. N. Thomson.
The worm digestive tract consists of a pharynx, intestine, and rectum and contains only about 100 cells. Development is regulated by similar transcription factors found for other species (FoxA and GATA factors).
- FoxA - pharynx and rectum
- GATA - intestine
- ↑ Montserrat Porta-de-la-Riva, Laura Fontrodona, Alberto Villanueva, Julián Cerón Basic Caenorhabditis elegans Methods: Synchronization and Observation. J Vis Exp: 2012, (64); PMID:22710399 | J Vis Exp.
- ↑ Tamar D Resnick, Katherine A McCulloch, Ann E Rougvie miRNAs give worms the time of their lives: small RNAs and temporal control in Caenorhabditis elegans. Dev. Dyn.: 2010, 239(5);1477-89 PMID:20232378
- ↑ Jeremy S Bickel, Liting Chen, Jin Hayward, Szu Ling Yeap, Ashley E Alkers, Raymond C Chan Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) proteins promote homolog-independent recombination repair in meiosis crucial for germ cell genomic stability. PLoS Genet.: 2010, 6(7);e1001028 PMID:20661436 | PLoS Genetics
- ↑ Scott W Emmons Male development. WormBook: 2005;1-22 PMID:18050419 Worm Book - Male development
- ↑ Lisa Timmons, Hiroaki Tabara, Craig C Mello, Andrew Z Fire Inducible systemic RNA silencing in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mol. Biol. Cell: 2003, 14(7);2972-83 PMID:12857879 | PMC165691
- ↑ Jay D Kormish, Jeb Gaudet, James D McGhee Development of the C. elegans digestive tract. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev.: 2010, 20(4);346-54 PMID:20570129
WormBook - a comprehensive, open-access collection of original, peer-reviewed chapters covering topics related to the biology of Caenorhabditis elegans and other nematodes.
- Asymmetric cell division and axis formation in the embryo
- Embryological variation during nematode development
July 2010 "c elegans Development" All (5126) Review (898) Free Full Text (2363)
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name.
- WormBook open-access collection of chapters covering topics related to the biology of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) and other nematodes.
- Caenorhabditis Genome Sequencing Projects
- Caenorhabditis elegans WWW Server
- The Hall lab - aim to serve the C. elegans community by creating a digital database of TEM images & wild type tissues- an Atlas of worm anatomy.
Animal Development: Axolotl | Bat | Cat | Chicken | Cow | Dog | Dolphin | Echidna | Fly | Frog | Grasshopper | Guinea Pig | Hamster | Kangaroo | Koala | Lizard | Medaka | Mouse | Pig | Platypus | Rabbit | Rat | Sea Squirt | Sea Urchin | Sheep | Worm | Zebrafish | Life Cycles
- A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols
Cite this page:
Hill, M.A. (2013) Worm Development. Retrieved June 19, 2013, from http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Worm_Development
- Dr Mark Hill 2013, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G