Cat Development

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Contents

Introduction

Cat with 6 toes
Cat Ovary

Cats (Felis catus) are seasonally polyestrous animals that have multiple estrous cycles only during certain periods of the year.


Links: Estrous Cycle | Toxoplasmosis | Category:Cat

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Some Recent Findings

  • Follicular growth monitoring in the female cat during estrus[1] "This study was designed to describe follicular dynamics by transabdominal ultrasonography. Secondly, the stage of follicular growth was associated to behavioral and vaginal changes. Ovarian ultrasonography was performed during nine anovulatory and 12 ovulatory cycles. Forty-eight follicles were followed during anovulatory cycles: on the first day of estrus behavior, 4.8 ± 0.2 follicles (2 to 7 per female) of 2.3 ± 0.01 mm mean diameter were present. Follicular growth continued at a rate of 0.2 ± 0.04 mm per day. At least one follicle in the cohort reached a diameter greater than 3.0 mm."
  • Development of external genitalia in fetal and neonatal domestic cats[2] "The female urogenital folds budded from each side of the genital tubercle and, gradually extended to the tip of the genital tubercle by the 6.8 cm stage in crown-rump length. Then, the well-developed urogenital folds ensheathed completely the genital tubercle to form the prepuce of clitoris and the labia, flanking the external opening of vagina as the folds of skin which were equivalent to the labia minora in humans. The genital swellings known to become the labia majora in humans were clearly recognized in the caudolateral region of the genital tubercle during the fetal stage. These swellings became flat and obscure after birth. Thus, in cats the genital swellings did not join to the formation of the labia in the same way as in humans. The sex difference in the external genitalia was first observed at the 3.2-3.3 cm stages. In the male, the anogenital raphe appeared and the caudal portion of the genital swellings moved and fused each other at the caudal region of the genital tubercle. In the female, both features were not easy to observe."

Developmental Timeline

Cat oocyte calcium concentration[3]

Twenty-two stages have been described for the prenatal development of the domestic cat.[4]


The following data on early development is based upon the time after copulation[5]

oviduct embryo development

  • 64 hours - 1 to 4 cells (17 of 20; 85.0%)
  • 76 hours - 5 to 8 cells (18 of 28; 64.3% )
  • 100 hours - 9 to 16 cells (14 of 24; 58.3%)
  • 124 hours - morulae (15 of 21; 71.4% )

uterine embryo development

  • 148 hours - compact morulae or early blastocysts
  • days 12-14 - implantation occurs

Oocyte and Spermatozoa

The following scanning electron micrographs are from a recent paper on fresh and frozen cat oocytes.[6] Scale bar is 10 microns.

Cat oocyte zona pellucida 01.jpg Cat oocyte zona pellucida 02.jpg

Cat spermatozoa bound to oocyte zona pellucida.jpg

Genetics

Lineage: Eukaryota; Opisthokonta; Metazoa; Eumetazoa; Bilateria; Coelomata; Deuterostomia; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Gnathostomata; Teleostomi; Euteleostomi; Sarcopterygii; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Carnivora; Feliformia; Felidae; Felinae; Felis; Felis catus

  • Nucleus - not much genomic sequencing information available for the cat.
  • Mitochondria - entire mitochondrial genome 17,009 bp has been sequenced.


Links: Mitochondrial Genome

Placenta

  • zonary placenta without cotyledons
  • relatively small marginal hematoma
  • materno-fetal barrier is endothelial-chorial
  • superficially invasive into the endometrium but not into the myometrium
  • placental labryrinth has characteristic giant cells

Placental cord

  • two pairs of vessels in the cord
    • two arteries and two veins
  • allantoic duct
  • cord average length 2 to 3 cm and 0.3 to 0.5 cm in diameter
  • inserts at the margin of the zonary organ
  • no spirals, no vitelline duct, and no additional vessels or structures
Links: Comparative Placentation - Cat

Additional Images

Historic Images

References

  1. E Malandain, D Rault, E Froment, S Baudon, L Desquilbet, D Begon, S Chastant-Maillard Follicular growth monitoring in the female cat during estrus. Theriogenology: 2011, 76(7);1337-46 PMID:21798582
  2. Tomo Inomata, Makoto Ariga, Katsuyasu Sakita, Naomi Kashiwazaki, Junya Ito, Kiyofumi Yokoh, Masahiko Ichikawa, Hiroyoshi Ninomiya, Seiya Inoue Development of external genitalia in fetal and neonatal domestic cats. J. Vet. Med. Sci.: 2009, 71(2);139-45 PMID:19262023
  3. Chunmin Wang, William F Swanson, Jason R Herrick, Kiho Lee, Zoltan Machaty Analysis of cat oocyte activation methods for the generation of feline disease models by nuclear transfer. Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol.: 2009, 7();148 PMID:20003339 | Reprod Biol Endocrinol.
  4. C Knospe Periods and stages of the prenatal development of the domestic cat. Anat Histol Embryol: 2002, 31(1);37-51 PMID:11841356
  5. W F Swanson, T L Roth, D E Wildt In vivo embryogenesis, embryo migration, and embryonic mortality in the domestic cat. Biol. Reprod.: 1994, 51(3);452-64 PMID:7803616 | PDF
  6. Ulrika Hermansson, Eva Axnér, Bodil Ström Holst Application of a zona pellucida binding assay (ZBA) in the domestic cat benefits from the use of in vitro matured oocytes. Acta Vet. Scand.: 2007, 49();28 PMID:17908298 | Acta Vet Scand.

Articles

Tomo Inomata, Hiroyoshi Ninomiya, Katsuyasu Sakita, Naomi Kashiwazaki, Junya Ito, Makoto Ariga, Seiya Inoue Developmental changes of Müllerian and Wolffian ducts in domestic cat fetuses. Exp. Anim.: 2009, 58(1);41-5 PMID:19151510

Tomo Inomata, Makoto Ariga, Katsuyasu Sakita, Naomi Kashiwazaki, Junya Ito, Kiyofumi Yokoh, Masahiko Ichikawa, Hiroyoshi Ninomiya, Seiya Inoue Development of external genitalia in fetal and neonatal domestic cats. J. Vet. Med. Sci.: 2009, 71(2);139-45 PMID:19262023

Francesca Ciani, Natascia Cocchia, Maria Rizzo, Patrizia Ponzio, Gennaro Tortora, Luigi Avallone, Roberto Lorizio Sex determining of cat embryo and some feline species. Zygote: 2008, 16(2);169-77 PMID:18405438

Luiz R França, Christiane L Godinho Testis morphometry, seminiferous epithelium cycle length, and daily sperm production in domestic cats (Felis catus). Biol. Reprod.: 2003, 68(5);1554-61 PMID:12606460

C Knospe Periods and stages of the prenatal development of the domestic cat. Anat Histol Embryol: 2002, 31(1);37-51 PMID:11841356


Search Pubmed: cat development | feline development


Animal Development: Axolotl | Bat | Cat | Chicken | Cow | Dog | Dolphin | Echidna | Fly | Frog | Grasshopper | Guinea Pig | Hamster | Kangaroo | Koala | Lizard | Medaka | Mouse | Pig | Platypus | Rabbit | Rat | Sea Squirt | Sea Urchin | Sheep | Worm | Zebrafish | Life Cycles | Development Timetable | K12
Historic Animals: 1897 Pig | 1900 Chicken | 1901 Lungfish | 1904 Sand Lizard | 1905 Rabbit | 19066 Deer | 1907 Tarsiers | 1908 Human | 1909 Northern Lapwing | 1909 South American and African Lungfish | 1910 Salamander | Embryology History | Historic Disclaimer


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2014) Embryology Cat Development. Retrieved April 23, 2014, from http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Cat_Development

What Links Here?
Dr Mark Hill 2014, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G
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