The frog has been historically been used as an amphibian animal model of development due to the ease of observation from the fertilized egg through to tadpole stage. The later metamorphosis of the tadpole to frog has also been studied for hormonal controls and limb development. There have also been many different species used in these developmental studies.
The frog was historically used by many of the early embryology investigators and currently there are many different molecular mechanisms concerning development of the frog. The 2012 Nobel prize in medicine was recently awarded to John Gurdon for his 1960's experiments involving nuclear transplantation with adult nuclei into frog eggs, these studies were the precursor to current research in stem cells.
The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) has been used in many embryological and electrophysiological studies as well as the basis of a historic pregnancy test. The advantages of this frog is the fertility cycle can be easliy controlled and the eggs develop entirely independently and easily visible to the investigator. You can see an overview of the frog life cycle with links to specific stages as well as movies of the early process of gastrulation. This animal model has also shown that localization of maternal messenger RNA (eg vegetal and review) appears to play a key role in the development of early embryological patterns.
The Leopard frog (Rana pipiens) in 1952 became the first successful nuclear transfer experiment. Nuclear transfer is an embryological technique, and involves removal of the nucleus from an egg and replacement with the nucleus of another donor cell. This experiment paved the way for what we know today as the field of cloning.
In Australia, the cane toad (Bufo marinus) species was introduced in 1935 to control cane insect pests. It has now itself become an introduced pest and has also been studied/used more in order to try and biologically control. The area which they occupy has continued to expand. This toad has a poisonous secretion that is extremely toxic and should be handled with care at all times.
- Frog Links: Frog Development | 2009 Student Project | Hans Spemann | 1921 Early Frog Development | 1951 Rana pipiens Development | Rana pipiens Images | Frog Glossary | John Gurdon | Category:Frog | Animal Development
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
[Individual variation in the development of the common toad, Bufo bufo (Anura, Bufonidae): 3. Limitations of individual variation and their causes]. Ontogenez: , 44(4);265-79 PMID:24450175 [Individual variation in the development of the common toad, Bufo bufo (Anura, Bufonidae): 2. Diagnostic characters of the axial skeleton]. Ontogenez: , 44(4);249-64 PMID:24450174 [Individual variation in the development of the common toad, Bufo bufo (Anura, Bufonidae): I. Timing of development and anomalies of external structure]. Ontogenez: , 44(4);240-8 PMID:24450173
Julien Falk, Filip A Konopacki, Krishna H Zivraj, Christine E Holt Rab5 and Rab4 regulate axon elongation in the Xenopus visual system. J. Neurosci.: 2014, 34(2);373-91 PMID:24403139 Naama Bin-Nun, Hava Lichtig, Anastasia Malyarova, Michal Levy, Sara Elias, Dale Frank PTK7 modulates Wnt signaling activity via LRP6. Development: 2013; PMID:24353057
Eukaryotae; mitochondrial eukaryotes; Metazoa; Chordata;Vertebrata; Amphibia; Batrachia; Anura; Mesobatrachia; Pipoidea;Pipidae; Xenopodinae; Xenopus
Taxonomy Id: 8404 Preferred common name: northern leopard frog Rank: species
Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard) Mitochondrial genetic code: Translation table 2 Lineage( abbreviated ):
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Amphibia; Batrachia; Anura; Neobatrachia; Ranoidea; Ranidae; Raninae; Rana
Frog Life Cycle
Typical frog development at 18oC from fertilised egg.
Stages in the Normal Development of Rana pipiens
Oocyte Balbiani body
- spherical cytoplasmic region that forms within the oocyte in early oogenesis and then fragments and disperses in late oogenesis.
- membrane-less structure consisting of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), membranous vesicles and lipid droplets.
Xenopus stage I oocytes
- Balbiani body is ∼40 μm in diameter
- contains half a million mitochondria, with different morphology and metabolism from other cytoplasmic mitochondria
- rich in membranous vesicles, and ER cysternae.
- vegetal apex (METRO region) contains germinal granules and localized RNAs
- family of interspersed repeat RNAs that contain from 3 to 13 repeat units (each 79 to 81 nucleotides long) flanked by unique sequences.
- homologous to the mammalian Xist gene involved in X chromosome inactivation
- stage 2 oocytes - appears first in the mitochondrial cloud (Balbiani body)
- stage 3 oocytes - translocated as island-like structures to the vegetal cortex coincident with the localization of the germ plasm.
The following paper cartoons show models of signaling mechanisms that occur during early development of the germ cell layers (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm).
Comparative brain anatomy frog and dog models.
Metamorphosis of the frog, Rana catesbiana.
Sequence from left to right, top and bottom:
- tadpole with hind legs only
- tadpole with two pairs of legs
- tadpole with disappearing tail, ready to emerge from water to land
- immature terrestrial frog
- mature frog
Xenbase is a Xenopus model organism computer database with 4 GB of data in many hundreds of tables that has recently (2012) been updated, as described in the abstract of an NAR article.
- "Xenbase (http://www.xenbase.org) is a model organism database that provides genomic, molecular, cellular and developmental biology content to biomedical researchers working with the frog, Xenopus and Xenopus data to workers using other model organisms. As an amphibian Xenopus serves as a useful evolutionary bridge between invertebrates and more complex vertebrates such as birds and mammals. Xenbase content is collated from a variety of external sources using automated and semi-automated pipelines then processed via a combination of automated and manual annotation. A link-matching system allows for the wide variety of synonyms used to describe biological data on unique features, such as a gene or an anatomical entity, to be used by the database in an equivalent manner. Recent updates to the database include the Xenopus laevis genome, a new Xenopus tropicalis genome build, epigenomic data, collections of RNA and protein sequences associated with genes, more powerful gene expression searches, a community and curated wiki, an extensive set of manually annotated gene expression patterns and a new database module that contains data on over 700 antibodies that are useful for exploring Xenopus cell and developmental biology."
|Wilhelm Roux (1850 – 1924)||Hans Spemann (1869 - 1941)||John Gurdon (1933 - )|
|A German zoologist and pioneer of experimental embryology. Experimented by pricking and destroying one of the two blastomeres, to obtain half an embryo from the other.||A German embryologist who worked extensively on amphibian development and was the discoverer of the organiser region (or primitive node) the controller of gastrulation. Received the 1935 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development".||An English embryologist in 1962 used nuclear transplantation and cloning to show that the nucleus of a differentiated somatic cell retains the totipotency necessary to form a whole organism. Received the 2012 Nobel Prize "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent".|
- ↑ R Briggs, T J King Transplantation of Living Nuclei From Blastula Cells into Enucleated Frogs' Eggs. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 1952, 38(5);455-63 PMID:16589125 | PMC1063586 | PNAS Classic
- ↑ Christoph Waldner, Magdalena Roose, Gerhart U Ryffel Red fluorescent Xenopus laevis: a new tool for grafting analysis. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2009, 9();37 PMID:19549299 | PMC2706234 | BMC Dev Biol.
- ↑ Natalia Sáenz-Ponce, Christian Mitgutsch, Eugenia M Del Pino Variation in the schedules of somite and neural development in frogs. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2012; PMID:23184997
- ↑ Alexander A Tokmakov, Sho Iguchi, Tetsushi Iwasaki, Yasuo Fukami Unfertilized frog eggs die by apoptosis following meiotic exit. BMC Cell Biol.: 2011, 12();56 PMID:22195698
- ↑ Anna Kosubek, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Katrin Rademacher, Bernhard Horsthemke, Gerhart U Ryffel Aging of Xenopus tropicalis eggs leads to deadenylation of a specific set of maternal mRNAs and loss of developmental potential. PLoS ONE: 2010, 5(10);e13532 PMID:21042572
- ↑ Thiagarajan Venkatarama, Fangfang Lai, Xueting Luo, Yi Zhou, Karen Newman, Mary Lou King Repression of zygotic gene expression in the Xenopus germline. Development: 2010, 137(4);651-60 PMID:20110330
- ↑ M Kloc, G Spohr, L D Etkin Translocation of repetitive RNA sequences with the germ plasm in Xenopus oocytes. Science: 1993, 262(5140);1712-4 PMID:7505061
- ↑ Samantha A Morris, Alexandra D Almeida, Hideaki Tanaka, Kunimasa Ohta, Shin-ichi Ohnuma Tsukushi modulates Xnr2, FGF and BMP signaling: regulation of Xenopus germ layer formation. PLoS ONE: 2007, 2(10);e1004 PMID:17925852 | PMC1994590 | PLoS ONE
- ↑ Christina James-Zorn, Virgilio G Ponferrada, Chris J Jarabek, Kevin A Burns, Erik J Segerdell, Jacqueline Lee, Kevin Snyder, Bishnu Bhattacharyya, J Brad Karpinka, Joshua Fortriede, Jeff B Bowes, Aaron M Zorn, Peter D Vize Xenbase: expansion and updates of the Xenopus model organism database. Nucleic Acids Res.: 2012; PMID:23125366
Rugh, R. The Frog Its Reproduction and Development The Blakiston Company, New York, 1951.
- Frog Development (1951): Introduction | Rana pipiens | Reproductive System | Fertilization | Cleavage | Blastulation | Gastrulation | Neurulation | Early Embryo Changes | Later Embryo or Larva | Ectodermal Derivatives | Endodermal Derivatives | Mesodermal Derivatives | Summary of Organ Appearance | Glossary | Bibliography | Figures
Teruo Kaneda, Jun-ya Doi Motoki Gastrulation and pre-gastrulation morphogenesis, inductions, and gene expression: similarities and dissimilarities between urodelean and anuran embryos. Dev. Biol.: 2012, 369(1);1-18 PMID:22634398
C Michael Jones, James C Smith An overview of Xenopus development. Methods Mol. Biol.: 2008, 461();385-94 PMID:19030813
Eugenia M del Pino, Michael Venegas-Ferrín, Andrés Romero-Carvajal, Paola Montenegro-Larrea, Natalia Sáenz-Ponce, Iván M Moya, Ingrid Alarcón, Norihiro Sudou, Shinji Yamamoto, Masanori Taira A comparative analysis of frog early development. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2007, 104(29);11882-8 PMID:17606898
Bailey, F.R. and Miller, A.M. (1921). Text-Book of Embryology. Early development of the frog
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name.
- Xenbase A database of information pertaining to the cell and developmental biology of the frog, Xenopus
- Xenopus Laboratory List A database of Labs studying Xenopus
- Xenopus Microarrays
- Digital photographs of Xenopus stages (2005)
- Xenopus Cell Biology
- The Xenopus Molecular Marker Resource An electronic library of information on embryonic development of the frog, Xenopus laevis | Index page for all Markers | whole mount staining patterns
- Molecular Markers of Development: cement gland XA, XAG, XCG | early mesoderm - BMP2, BMP4, Chordin, goosecoid, Mix,[Marker_pages/organizer/noggin.html noggin], Xbra, Xnr3, Xwnt-8, XVent1 and XVent2 | endothelial - Xl-fli | germ cells - Xpat | heart - cardiac troponin I , XNKX-2.5, XTin1 (XNKX-2.3) | lateral line - tor70, [Marker_pages/CNS/2G9.html 2G9] | muscle - 5A3, 12/101, cardiac actin, XMyf-5, XMyoD | neural crest - Slug, XTwist , xAP2 | notochord - Xnot, tor70 | pronephros - [Marker_pages/pronephros/3G8.html 3G8 ], Wilms' tumor (xWT1), Xlim-1, Xwnt-4 | pronephric duct - 4A6
- Frogs of Greater Brisbane Region (Australia)
- Developmental Biology- Laurie Iten's Serially Sectioned Frog and Chick Embryos
- Developmental Biology- Jeff Hardin's Amphibian Embryology Tutorial
- NIH- Organisms for biomedical research
- Columbia University Kelley Lab - The natural and unnatural histories of xenopus laevis
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2014) Embryology Frog Development. Retrieved March 7, 2014, from http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Frog_Development
- Dr Mark Hill 2014, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G