Introduction, which allowed specifc developmental landmarks to be seen and correlated with experimental manipulations of development. This much cited paper included images of all key stages and was more recently republished in the journal Developmental Dynamics (1993), for a new generation of avian researchers. Probably just as important has been the recent chicken genome sequencing, providing a resource to extend our knowledge of this excellent developmental model.
Fertilized eggs can be easily maintained in humidified incubators and during early stages of development the embryo floats on to of the egg yolk that it is using for nutrition. As the embryo grows it sinks into, or below the, yolk. The regular appearance of somites allowed early experimenters to acurately stage the embryo. The embryo was accessible and easy to manipulate (limb grafts/removal etc) that were informative about developmental processes. Chicken cells and tissues (neural ganglia/fragments) are also easy to grow in tissue culture. The discovery that quail cells have a different nuclear appearance meant that transplanted cells (chick/quail chimeras) could be tracked during development. For example, LeDourian's studies showed how neural crest cells migrate widely throughout the embryo.
- Chicken Links: Introduction | Chicken stages | Hamburger Hamilton Stages | Witschi Stages | Historic 1883 Study | Historic 1920 Study
Hamburger & Hamilton Stages
Hamburger & Hamilton staged the chicken embryo in 1951. The original paper had approx 25 citations between 1955 - 59, while in the year 1991 alone there were over 300 citations. Series of Embryonic Chicken Growth. J. Morphology, 88 49 - 92 (1951). Atlas recently republished by J.R. Sanes in Developmental Dynamics 195 229-275 (1993).
- A PDF Poster of developed from the original paper by Developmental Dynamics showing these stages on one page is available Poster- Hamburger Hamilton Stages
- A 2006 reproduction of the original paper Series of Embryonic Chicken Growth. J. Morphology, 88 49 - 92 (1951).
Some Recent Findings
Taxonomy Id: 9031Preferred common name: chickenRank: speciesGenetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard) Mitochondrial genetic code: Translation table 2
Other names: dwarf Leghorn chickens[includes], red junglefowl[includes], chickens[common name], Gallus domesticus[misnomer], Gallus gallus domesticus[misnomer]
Lineage( abbreviated ): Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Archosauria; Aves; Neognathae; Galliformes; Phasianidae; Phasianinae; Gallus
Other Chicken Atlases
Vertebrate and Invertebrate Embryos (7th Edition) G.C. Schoenwolf, Prentice Hall, New Jersey
An Atlas of Embryology (1975) W.H. Freeman and B. Bracegirdle, Heinemann Educational Books, UK.
This is an ATLAS (no description of development) , basically reprinted from the original 1963 edition.
Photos with labelled diagrams covering Amphioxus (worm) Frog, Chicken.
An Atlas for Staging Mammalian and Chick Embryos (1987) H. Bultler and B.H. Juurlink, CRC Press Inc., Florida
This ATLAS is not a complete series of development but has interesting comparisons of species.
Mostly photos of embryos with a few drawn diagrams and a series of staging correlation graphs.
The first draft of the chicken genome was publicly released in March, 2004. There are a number of sites that have begun looking into establishing chicken genomics partly due to its powerful history as a model of vertebrate development that is easy to observe, manipulate and is also cheap. (see also NIH Proposal for Chicken Genomics | NCBI Chicken Genome Resources)
A summary of chicken genome resources has recently been identified in a review in Developmental Dynamics by Antin PB and Konieczka JH.</ref>
Chicken Sex Determination
In chicken development sex determination depends on a ZZ male/ZW female mechanism.
This differs from mammalian sex determination which is based upon testis expression of an Sry gene in somatic supporting Sertoli cells.
In the gonad, the coelomic epithelium contributes only to non-steroidogenic interstitial cells and nephrogenous mesenchyme contributes both Sertoli cells and steroidogenic cells.
Primordial Germ Cell Migration Model
|HH12–13 - yolk sac circulation courses in loop (red arrows) to enter the embryo via the heart. The majority of PGCs (green dots) localized axially at the border between the area opaca and pellucida, where the sinus terminalis converged in the anterior vitelline veins.||HH14–16 - PGCs (green dots) circulated effectively towards the embryo via the sinus terminalis and the anterior vitelline veins towards the heart. Then PGCs traffic via the aorta to the caudal part of the embryo and become lodged in the genital ridges.|
Chick somitogenesis oscillator
Chicken body elongation model
Limb Hairy2 Expression Model
Hairy2 is a "molecular oscillator" involved in both somite and limb development.
The Elements of Embryology - Volume 1 by Foster, M., Balfour, F. M., Sedgwick, A., & Heape, W. (1883)
The History of the Chick: Egg structure and incubation beginning | Summary whole incubation | First day | Second day - first half | Second day - second half | Third day | Fourth day | Fifth day | Sixth day to incubation end
- ↑ V Hamburger, H L Hamilton A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo. 1951. Dev. Dyn.: 1992, 195(4);231-72 PMID:1304821
- ↑ Christie A Canaria, Rusty Lansford 4D fluorescent imaging of embryonic quail development. Cold Spring Harb Protoc: 2011, 2011(11);1291-4 PMID:22046043
- ↑ Julia Clarke, Kevin Middleton Bird evolution. Curr. Biol.: 2006, 16(10);R350-4 PMID:16713939
- ↑ Bent E K Lindow, Gareth J Dyke Bird evolution in the Eocene: climate change in Europe and a Danish fossil fauna. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc: 2006, 81(4);483-99 PMID:16893476
- ↑ Parker B Antin, Jay H Konieczka Genomic resources for chicken. Dev. Dyn.: 2005, 232(4);877-82 PMID:15739221 | Developmental Dynamics
- ↑ Ana De Melo Bernardo, Kaylee Sprenkels, Gabriela Rodrigues, Toshiaki Noce, Susana M Chuva De Sousa Lopes Chicken primordial germ cells use the anterior vitelline veins to enter the embryonic circulation. Biol Open: 2012, 1(11);1146-52 PMID:23213395 | PMC3507194 | Biol Open
- ↑ Gennady Tenin, David Wright, Zoltan Ferjentsik, Robert Bone, Michael J McGrew, Miguel Maroto The chick somitogenesis oscillator is arrested before all paraxial mesoderm is segmented into somites. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2010, 10();24 PMID:20184730
- ↑ Isabel Olivera-Martinez, Hidekiyo Harada, Pamela A Halley, Kate G Storey Loss of FGF-dependent mesoderm identity and rise of endogenous retinoid signalling determine cessation of body axis elongation. PLoS Biol.: 2012, 10(10);e1001415 PMID:23118616 | PLoS Biol.
- ↑ Caroline J Sheeba, Raquel P Andrade, Isabel Palmeirim Joint interpretation of AER/FGF and ZPA/SHH over time and space underlies hairy2 expression in the chick limb. Biol Open: 2012, 1(11);1102-10 PMID:23213390 | PMC3507187 | Biol Open
Search Pubmed: chicken development
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External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name.
- Developmental Dynamics - Chicken Special Issue (2004) | Poster- Hamburger Hamilton Stages | Republished Hamburger Hamilton Stages Paper
- Developmental Biology - Quail-Chick Chimeras
- Nicole Le Douarin pioneered the use of quail-chick chimeras to study the developmental fate of cells in the bird embryo. The videotape Nicole Le Douarin gave us permission to digitize is titled, "Quail-Chick Chimeras in Development of the Nervous System and Immune System" and it was made in 1987. These digital video sequences and still images come from the first part of her videotape. These chimeras were a key to our understanding cell migration (eg neural crest) in the embryo.
- Quicktime movie sequence 1 (477k) showing newly hatched quail-chick chimeras; white feathers are chick and dark, pigmented feathers are quail.
- Quicktime movie sequence 2 (1.3 MB) Sequence showing the preparation of the chick host; removing a portion of host's neural tube and neural crest.
- Quicktime movie sequence 3 (1.4 MB) Sequence showing the removal and "cleaning off" of donor quail neural tube and neural crest.
- Quicktime movie sequence 4 (1.5 MB) Sequence showing transplantation and grafting of donor quail neural tube and neural crest into the chick host; at the end of this sequence, you see the host chick embryo 5 hours later with its healed in graft.
- Developmental Biology- Laurie Iten's Serially Sectioned Frog and Chick Embryos
- Chicken genomic websites
- AvianNet http://www.ri.bbsrc.ac.uk/chickmap
- NCBI Chicken Genome Resources
- Genome browser - Washington University Genome Sequencing Center (WUGSC)
- Genome browser - ¬†Ensembl
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- Dr Mark Hill 2013, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G