Immune System Development
Development of the immune system will also link to cardiovascular development notes (blood and vessel) and bone marrow development. Two organs which also relate to this system are the thymus and spleen, which have in the past been included in endocrine and gastrointestinal tract development respectively. There are now also movies showing lymphocyte (B and T cells) traffic within adult lymph nodes.
During prenatal development, maternal IgG antibodies are transferred from about week 13 (GA) across the placenta, from the maternal lacunae syncytiotrophoblast cell endosomes bind IgG through neonatal Fc receptors.
- Immune Links: Introduction | Blood | Spleen | Thymus | Lymphatic | Lymph Node | Antibody | Med Lecture - Lymphatic Structure | Med Practical | Immune Movies | Vaccination | Category:Immune
Some Recent Findings
| The human spleen arises in week 5 within the dorsal mesogastrium as proliferating mesenchyme overlying the dorsal pancreatic endoderm. Cells required for its hemopoietic function arise from the yolk sac wall and near dorsal aorta.
The spleen generates both red and white cells in the 2nd trimester. Note that many embryonic RBCs remain nucleated.
|D4 Dorsal Mesogastrium (stage 13)|
- Links: Spleen Development
| The thymus has a key role in the development of an effective immune system as well as an endocrine function.
The thymus has two origins for the lymphoid thymocytes and the thymic epithelial cells. The thymic epithelium begins as two flask-shape endodermal diverticula that form from the third pharyngeal pouch and extend lateralward and backward into the surrounding mesoderm and neural crest-derived mesenchyme in front of the ventral aorta.
|D4 Developing Thymus (stage 22)|
- Links: Thymus Development
Lymph Node Development
- Links: Lymph Node Development
T Lymphocyte Development
A study of cord blood from 19 early second and third trimester fetuses (GA 18-36 weeks) and 16 term newborns (GA 37-42 weeks).
- Percentage of lymphocytes in fetal white blood cells was 79.3%, reducing to 40% by term birth
- higher than that of adults.
- Mononuclear cells (cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC)
- fetal mononuclear cells were unable to produce IL-2, IL-4 or IFN-gamma.
- spontaneously secreted IL-10, IL-6 and TNF-alpha in vitro.
- fail to respond to mitogen (PHA) or allogeneic stimulation in vitro.
- Stimulation with PHA up-regulated the production of IL-10, IL-6 and TNF-alpha substantially.
- CD3+ T cells in fetal (40.1%) and neonatal (42.4%)
- lower than that of men (59.6%) and pregnant women (53.6%).
- CD8+ T cells (9.5%)
- gamma delta - T cells (0.5%)
- NK cells (4.8%)
- Liver - The adult liver is a lymphoid organ with a predominantly innate immune system. NK cells are abundant in the normal liver (about one-third of intrahepatic lymphocytes), differs from other lymphoid organs and peripheral blood.
During prenatal development, maternal antibodies are transferred across the placenta to the fetus. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is transferred across the syncytiotrophoblast cell layer is mediated by the Neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). Once inside placental villi, immunoglobulins then need to enter fetal circulation by crossing the second cellular endothelial cell layer by an as yet unknown mechanism.
During postnatal development, maternal antibodies are transferred by maternal milk across the neonatal gastrointestinal tract epithelium.
Developing Human Thymus (stage 22)
F1 Developing Human Spleen (stage 22)
F2 Developing Human Spleen (stage 22)
F3 Developing Human Spleen (stage 22)
The images below are from adult immune Lymph Nodes.
- Human natural killer cells (NK) - originate from CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells.
Adult Lymphocyte Histology
- Lymphocyte EM Images: T and B Lymphocytes 1 TEM | T and B Lymphocytes 2 TEM | T Lymphocyte SEM | B lymphocyte 1 TEM | B lymphocyte 2 TEM | B lymphocyte 3 TEM | Plasma Cell TEM | T2 Lymphocyte 1 TEM | T2 Lymphocyte 2 TEM | lymphocyte rosettes | T lymphocyte 1 | T lymphocyte 2 | T lymphocyte 3 | T lymphocyte 4 | T lymphocyte 5 | T lymphocyte 6 | B lymphocyte | B lymphocytes TEM | Immune System Development
Adult Lymphocyte Motility Movies
|T cell zone||T cell zone|| Sinus endothelial
|Bi-directional traffic|| Cross the sinus|
|Quicktime | Flash||Quicktime | Flash||Quicktime | Flash||Quicktime | Flash||Quicktime | Flash||Quicktime | Flash|
- ↑ Friedemann Kiefer, Ralf H Adams Lymphatic endothelial differentiation: start out with Sox--carry on with Prox. Genome Biol.: 2008, 9(12);243 PMID:19138383 | PMC2646268 | Genome Biology
- ↑ Gabriela D'Amico, Dylan T Jones, Emma Nye, Karen Sapienza, Antoine R Ramjuan, Louise E Reynolds, Stephen D Robinson, Vassiliki Kostourou, Dolores Martinez, Deborah Aubyn, Richard Grose, Gareth J Thomas, Bradley Spencer-Dene, Daniel Zicha, Derek Davies, Victor Tybulewicz, Kairbaan M Hodivala-Dilke Regulation of lymphatic-blood vessel separation by endothelial Rac1. Development: 2009, 136(23);4043-53 PMID:19906871
- ↑ G Eberl, M Lochner The development of intestinal lymphoid tissues at the interface of self and microbiota. Mucosal Immunol: 2009, 2(6);478-85 PMID:19741595
- ↑ Eva Sanz, Norman Muñoz-A, Jorge Monserrat, Ana Van-Den-Rym, Pedro Escoll, Ismael Ranz, Melchor Alvarez-Mon, Antonio de-la-Hera Ordering human CD34+CD10-CD19+ pre/pro-B-cell and CD19- common lymphoid progenitor stages in two pro-B-cell development pathways. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2010, 107(13);5925-30 PMID:20231472
- ↑ Akhil Maheshwari, Ashish R Kurundkar, Sadiq S Shaik, David R Kelly, Yolanda Hartman, Wei Zhang, Reed Dimmitt, Shehzad Saeed, David A Randolph, Charles Aprahamian, Geeta Datta, Robin K Ohls Epithelial cells in fetal intestine produce chemerin to recruit macrophages. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.: 2009, 297(1);G1-G10 PMID:19443732
- ↑ Takashi Satoh, Eiichi Sakurai, Hiroshi Tada, Tomoyuki Masuda Ontogeny of reticular framework of white pulp and marginal zone in human spleen: immunohistochemical studies of fetal spleens from the 17th to 40th week of gestation. Cell Tissue Res.: 2009, 336(2);287-97 PMID:19255788
- ↑ Y Zhao, Z-P Dai, P Lv, X-M Gao Phenotypic and functional analysis of human T lymphocytes in early second- and third-trimester fetuses. Clin. Exp. Immunol.: 2002, 129(2);302-8 PMID:12165087
Cara C Bertozzi, Paul R Hess, Mark L Kahn Platelets: covert regulators of lymphatic development. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.: 2010, 30(12);2368-71 PMID:21071706
Hélène Maby-El Hajjami, Tatiana V Petrova Developmental and pathological lymphangiogenesis: from models to human disease. Histochem. Cell Biol.: 2008, 130(6);1063-78 PMID:18946678
David Zawieja Lymphatic biology and the microcirculation: past, present and future. Microcirculation: , 12(1);141-50 PMID:15804980
Young-Kwon Hong, Jay W Shin, Michael Detmar Development of the lymphatic vascular system: a mystery unravels. Dev. Dyn.: 2004, 231(3);462-73 PMID:15376314
Reina E Mebius Organogenesis of lymphoid tissues. Nat. Rev. Immunol.: 2003, 3(4);292-303 PMID:12669020
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