Spermatozoa Development

From Embryology
Jump to: navigation, search
from Embryology (23 Jul 2014) Translate
Translate:

Arabic | Chinese (simplified) | French | German | Hebrew | Hindi | Indonesian | Japanese | Korean | Portuguese | Romanian | Russian | Spanish These external translations are automated and may not be accurate.

Facebook linkTwitter linkPinterest link
Frazer002 bw600.jpg

Introduction

Human spermatozoa (light microscope)
Human spermatozoa (electron microscope)
Single human spermatozoa[1]

This page introduces spermatogenesis the development of spermatozoa, the male haploid gamete cell. In humans at puberty, spermatozoa are produced by spermatogonia meiosis in the seminiferous tubules of the testis (male gonad). A second process of spermiogenesis leads to change in cellular organisation and shape before release into the central lumen of the seminiferous tubule. This overall process has been variously divided into specific identifiable stages in different species: 6 in human, 12 in mouse, and 14 in rat. Structurally, the seminiferous tubule epithelium is divided into a basal and an apical (adluminal) compartment by the blood–testis barrier (BTB). (More? Testis Development).

A second unique feature of this process is that during mitosis and meiosis the dividing cells remain connected by cytoplasmic bridges as the cells do not complete cytokinesis. This cellular organization is described as a syncytium, only ending with release into the central lumen of the seminiferous tubule, when the cell cytoplasm is discarded.


In a healthy adult human male it takes about 48 days from meiosis to produce a mature spermatozoa, and he produces somewhere between 45 to 207 million spermatozoa per day, or about 2,000 every second. (More? Statistics)


Genital Links: Introduction | Lecture - Medicine | Lecture - Science | Online Practical | Primordial Germ Cell | Meiosis | Female | Ovary | Oocyte | Uterus | Vagina | Male | Testis | Spermatozoa | Prostate | Genital Movies | Abnormalities | Assisted Reproductive Technology | Puberty | Category:Genital
Historic Embryology - Genital
1912 Urinogenital Organ Development | 1921 Urogenital Development | 1921 External Genital Development | Historic Disclaimer
| Medicine Practical | Fertilization | Category:Spermatozoa

Some Recent Findings

  • Morphometric dimensions of the human sperm head depend on the staining method used.[2] "Different staining techniques change the morphometric dimensions of the human sperm head, probably due to the fact that either the fixatives or stains are not iso-osmotic in relation to human semen."
  • Redistribution of nuclear pores[3] "The appearance of an electron-lucent nuclear region surrounded by the nascent redundant nuclear envelope indicated a pathway for transporting degradation products through the nuclear pores to the residual cytoplasm. The packaging of the nuclear pores into the redundant nuclear envelope suggests that they play a role in late stages of sperm maturation or in fertilization, as most other unnecessary organelles of sperm are discarded during spermiogenesis or during shedding of the cytoplasmic droplet."
  • Calpain modulates capacitation and acrosome reaction[4] "We found that calpain-1 is relocated and translocated from cytoplasm to plasma membrane during capacitation, where it could cleave spectrin, one of the proteins of the plasma membrane-associated cytoskeleton and facilitates acrosome reaction."
  • Spermatocytes cultured in simulated microgravity[5] "A critical step of spermatogenesis is the entry of mitotic spermatogonia into meiosis. Progresses on these topics are hampered by the lack of an in vitro culture system allowing mouse spermatogonia differentiation and entry into meiosis. Previous studies have shown that mouse pachytene spermatocytes cultured in simulated microgravity (SM) undergo a spontaneous meiotic progression. Here we report that mouse mitotic spermatogonia cultured under SM with a rotary cell culture system (RCCS) enter into meiosis in the absence of any added exogenous factor or contact with somatic cells."
More recent papers
Mark Hill.jpg
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent


Search term: Spermatozoa Development

C M Shafeeque, R P Singh, S K Sharma, J Mohan, K V H Sastry, G Kolluri, V K Saxena, J S Tyagi, J M Kataria, P A Azeez Development of a new method for sperm RNA purification in the chicken. Anim. Reprod. Sci.: 2014; PMID:25043268 Mitinori Saitou, Kazuki Kurimoto Paternal Nucleosomes: Are They Retained in Developmental Promoters or Gene Deserts? Dev. Cell: 2014, 30(1);6-8 PMID:25026032 Francois Chauvigne, Cinta Zapater, Diego Crespo, Josep V Planas, Joan Cerda Fsh and Lh direct conserved and specific pathways during flatfish semicystic spermatogenesis. J. Mol. Endocrinol.: 2014; PMID:25024405 Arpana Verma, Sandeep Rajput, Sachinandan De, Rakesh Kumar, Atish Kumar Chakravarty, Tirtha Kumar Datta Genome-wide profiling of sperm DNA methylation in relation to buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull fertility. Theriogenology: 2014; PMID:25023295 M B Mahre, H Wahid, Y Rosnina, F F A Jesse, C A Azlan, A M Khumran, A Z Jaji Sperm attributes and morphology on Rusa timorensis: Light and scanning electron microscopy. Anim. Reprod. Sci.: 2014; PMID:25015846

Movies

Spermatozoa animation icon.jpg
 ‎‎Spermatozoa
Page | Play
Spermatozoa motility icon 01.jpg
 ‎‎Spermatozoa Motility
Page | Play
Fertilization 002 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Fertilization
Page | Play
Fertilization 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Mouse Fertilisation
Page | Play


Seminiferous Tubule

Adult Seminiferous tubule showing spermatozoa developmental stages
Seminiferous tubule cross-section and supporting cells
Rat Spermatogenesis cartoon[6]

Seminiferous tubule cartoon.jpg

Seminiferous tubule cartoon[7]

Spermatozoa development: primordial germ cell - spermatogonia - primary spermatocyte - secondary spermatocytes - spermatid - spermatozoa


Links: Testis Histology | Testis Development

Spermatozoa Structure

Mouse- spermatozoa EM and diagram.jpg

Spermatozoa (mouse) cross-sections of tail (EM) and diagram[8]


Other main cell types seen in the histological sections

  • Sertoli cells- support cells seen within the seminiferous tubule
  • Interstitial cells or Leydig cells - produce hormone
  • Smooth muscle - surround seminiferous tubule and contribute to contraction of the tubule

Human Spermatozoa Development

  • Spermatogenesis process of spermatagonia mature into spermatazoa (sperm).
  • Continuously throughout life occurs in the seminiferous tubules in the male gonad- testis (plural testes).
  • At puberty spermatagonia activate and proliferate (mitosis).
  • about 48 days from entering meiosis until morphologically mature spermatozoa
  • about 64 days to complete spermatogenesis, depending reproduction time of spermatogonia
  • follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) - stimulates the spermatogenic epithelium
  • luteinizing-hormone (LH) - stimulates testosterone production by Leydig cells


Spermatogonia

  • spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) diploid progenitor for spermatozoa.
  • 1963 Clermont identified spermatogonia as Ap (pale) and Ad (dark) on basis of light microscope staining.[9]
    • now also type B
  • 60 years - Ap spermatogonia number decrease
  • 80 years - Ad spermatogonia number decrease

Sertoli Cells

  • form a “blood-testis” barrier through junctional complexes
  • separate the intra-tubular germinal epithelium into two compartments
  1. basal compartment - cells are exposed to the extra-tubular environment
  2. luminal compartment - cells are subject to an environment produced by Sertoli cells and germ cells

Spermatazoa Components

Mouse- spermatozoa EM and diagram.jpg

Spermatozoa (mouse) cross-sections of tail (EM) and diagram[8]

Acroplaxome

This structure forms the acrosome plate with intermediate filament bundles of the marginal ring at the leading edge of the acrosome.

Acrosome

Derived from the Golgi apparatus in conjunction with transient specialized bundles of microtubules (manchette).

Axoneme

The stable mature microtubule-containing tail of the sperm.

Centriole

Sperm contains a centriole which in most mammalian species is contributed to reconstitute the zygotic centrosome. In rodents, only a maternal centrosomal inheritance occurs.

Manchette

A transient microtubule structure formed in spermatids involved in the process of: assembly of the mammalian sperm tail, mechanical shaping and condensation of the sperm nucleus. These microtubules are also invloved with specific transport, intramanchette transport, which has been likened to intraflagellar transport. This microtubular structure surrounds the nucleus of the developing spermatid and is thought also to assist in both the reshaping of the nucleus and redistribution of spermatid cytoplasm.

Mitochondria

Contained in the initial segment provide the energy for motility and may also enter the egg on fertilization, but are eliminated by a ubiquitin-dependent mechanism.

Perinuclear Theca

Located in the sperm head perinuclear region and contains a cytoskeletal element to maintain the shape of the sperm head and functional molecules leading to oocyte activation during fertilization.

Meiosis

Spermatozoa maturation involves two processes meiosis and spermiogenesis. After puberty, new spermatozoa continue to be generated throughout life from a spermatogonia stem cell population in the testis.

Male gametogenesis.jpg

Differences in Mammalian Meioses

Female Oogenesis Male Spermatogenesis
Meiosis initiated once in a finite population of cells continuously in mitotically dividing stem cell population
Gametes produced 1 / meiosis 4 / meiosis
Meiosis completed delayed for months or years completed in days or weeks
Meiosis Arrest arrest at 1st meiotic prophase no arrest differentiation proceed continuously
Chromosome Equivalence All chromosomes exhibit equivalent transcription and recombination during meiotic prophase Sex chromosomes excluded from recombination and transcription during first meiotic prophase
Gamete Differentiation occurs while diploid (in first meiotic prophase) occurs while haploid (after meiosis ends)


Links: Cell Division - Meiosis

Mature Human Spermatozoa

Spermatozoa animation icon.jpg Features:
  • 60 µm long, actively motile
  • divided into 3 main regions (head, neck and tail)
  • head - (flattened, 5 µm long by 3 µm wide) the nucleus and acrosome. Posterior part of nuclear membrane forms the basal plate.
  • neck - (1 µm) attached to basal plate, transverse oriented centriole, contains nine segmented columns of fibrous material, continue as outer dense fibres in tail.
  • tail - 3 parts a middle piece, principal piece and end piece
    • middle piece - (5 µm long) axonema and dense fibres surrounded by mitochondria
    • principal piece - (45 µm long) fibrous sheath interconnected by regularly spaced circumferential hoops
    • end piece - (5 µm long) axonema surrounded by small amount of cytoplasm and plasma membrane

Development Animation - Spermatozoa


Spermatozoa Morphology

Morphology is a term used to describe the overall appearance of a cell or tissue and is often used to characterise changes in cellular state or activity. Historically, there have been studies comparing the overall appearance of spermatozoa between different species.[10] More recently, there have been several different ways of characterising the morphology of human spermatozoa developed mainly in relation to clinical reproductive technologies.

Integrated Sperm Analysis System (ISAS)

A semi-automated computer-aided system that measures spermatozoa head parameters length (L), width (W), area (A), perimeter (P), acrosomal area (Ac), and the derived values L/W and P/A. 20852650

  • For each man a homogeneous population of distributions characterized seminal spermatozoa (7,942 cells: median values L 4.4 μm, W 2.8 μm, A 9.8 μm(2), P 12.5 μm, Ac 47.5%, L/W 1.57, P/A 1.27)
  • Different men could have spermatozoa of significantly different dimensions.
  • Head dimensions for swim-up spermatozoa from different men (4 812 cells) were similar to those in semen, differing only by 2%-5%.
  • The values of L, W and L/W fell within the limits given by the World Health Organization (WHO).
  • A subpopulation of 404 spermatozoa considered to fit the stringent criteria of WHO 'normal' seminal spermatozoa from both semen and swim-up were characterized by median values (and 95% confidence intervals) of L, 4.3 μm (3.8-4.9), W, 2.9 μm (2.6-3.3), A, 10.2 μm(2) (8.5-12.2), P, 12.4 μm (11.3-13.9), Ac, 49% (36-60), L/W, 1.49 (1.32-1.67) and P/A, 1.22 (1.11-1.35). These median values fall within the 95th centile confidence limits given by WHO, but the confidence intervals for L and W were larger.


Spermatozoa Chemotaxis

The following series of 2011 research articles have identified the spermatozoa calcium channel protein (CatSper) as the progesterone activated pathway involved in capacitated spermatozoa chemotaxis.
  • The CatSper channel mediates progesterone-induced Ca2+ influx in human sperm[11]
  • Progesterone activates the principal Ca2+ channel of human sperm[12]
  • Spermatozoa hyperactivated motility[13]
    • part of the chemotactic response of human spermatozoa.
    • initiated by elevation of intracellular Ca2+
    • non-linear with increased velocity and a large amplitude of lateral head displacement
    • intense flagellar whiplash movements.
Spermatozoa motility icon 01.jpg
 ‎‎Spermatozoa Motility
Page | Play

Human Spermatazoa Statistics

The following data is based normal human male values for reproductive ages between 20 to 50 years[14]:

  • 45 to 207 million spermatozoa produced per day within the two testes
  • 2,000 spermatozoa approx per second each day
  • Compare this to adult human red blood cell production of about 250,000 million RBCs per day
  • 182 million spermatozoa stored (epididymal reserves) up to per epididymis
  • 440 million spermatozoa extragonadal stored
  • 225 million extragonadal spermatozoa in the ductuli deferentia and caudae epididymides per ejaculation
  • 23 million spermatozoa approx (all animals) per gram testicular parenchyma per day
  • Transit times
    • 0.72 day spermatozoa through the caput
    • 0.71 days spermatozoa through the corpus
    • 1.76 days spermatozoa through the cauda epididymidis

Histology

Papanicolaou stain (Papanicolaou's stain, Pap stain) a multichromatic (five dyes) staining histological technique developed by George Papanikolaou, used to differentiate cells in smear preparations of various bodily secretions.

Links: Testis Histology | Histology Stains

Male Abnormalities

Human Seminiferious Tubule - Non-obstructive azoospermia and Obstructive azoospermia
Classification Count (Millions/mL)
Azoospermia 0
Severe oligozoospermia less than 1
Moderate oligozoospermia 1-5
Mild oligozoospermia 5-20
Normal greater than 20

Oligospermia

(Low Sperm Count) less than 20 million sperm after 72 hour abstinence from sex

Azoospermia

(Absent Sperm) blockage of duct network

Immotile Cilia Syndrome

Lack of sperm motility

Additional Images

References

  1. João Batista A Oliveira, Claudia G Petersen, Fabiana C Massaro, Ricardo L R Baruffi, Ana L Mauri, Liliane F I Silva, Juliana Ricci, José G Franco Motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME): intervariation study of normal sperm and sperm with large nuclear vacuoles. Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol.: 2010, 8;56 PMID:20529256 | PMC2889997 | Reprod Biol Endocrinol.
  2. L Maree, S S du Plessis, R Menkveld, G van der Horst Morphometric dimensions of the human sperm head depend on the staining method used. Hum. Reprod.: 2010, 25(6);1369-82 PMID:20400771
  3. Han-Chen Ho Redistribution of nuclear pores during formation of the redundant nuclear envelope in mouse spermatids. J. Anat.: 2010, 216(4);525-32 PMID:20136667
  4. Yadira Bastián, Ana L Roa-Espitia, Adela Mújica, Enrique O Hernández-González Calpain modulates capacitation and acrosome reaction through cleavage of the spectrin cytoskeleton. Reproduction: 2010, 140(5);673-84 PMID:20716611
  5. Manuela Pellegrini, Sara Di Siena, Giuseppina Claps, Silvia Di Cesare, Susanna Dolci, Pellegrino Rossi, Raffaele Geremia, Paola Grimaldi Microgravity promotes differentiation and meiotic entry of postnatal mouse male germ cells. PLoS ONE: 2010, 5(2);e9064 PMID:20140225
  6. Yan-Ho Cheng, Elissa Wp Wong, C Yan Cheng Cancer/testis (CT) antigens, carcinogenesis and spermatogenesis. Spermatogenesis: 2011, 1(3);209-220 PMID:22319669 | PMC3271663 | Spermatogenesis.
  7. Damien Hunter, Ravinder Anand-Ivell, Sandra Danner, Richard Ivell Models of in vitro spermatogenesis. Spermatogenesis: 2012, 2(1);32-43 PMID:22553488 | PMC3341244 | Spermatogenesis
  8. 8.0 8.1 Claire L Borg, Katja M Wolski, Gerard M Gibbs, Moira K O'Bryan Phenotyping male infertility in the mouse: how to get the most out of a 'non-performer'. Hum. Reprod. Update: 2009, 16(2);205-24 PMID:19758979 | PMC2816191 | Hum Reprod Update.
  9. Y Clermont Spermatogenesis in man. A study of the spermatogonial population. Fertil. Steril.: 1966, 17(6);705-21 PMID:5920556
  10. D W Fawcett A comparative view of sperm ultrastructure. Biol. Reprod.: 1970, 2;Suppl 2:90-127 PMID:5521054 | Biol Reprod. PDF
  11. Timo Strünker, Normann Goodwin, Christoph Brenker, Nachiket D Kashikar, Ingo Weyand, Reinhard Seifert, U Benjamin Kaupp The CatSper channel mediates progesterone-induced Ca2+ influx in human sperm. Nature: 2011, 471(7338);382-6 PMID:21412338
  12. J V Johannessen [Physicians and leadership]. [Leger og ledelse.] Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen.: 1992, 112(23);2950 PMID:1412339
  13. Leah Armon, Michael Eisenbach Behavioral Mechanism during Human Sperm Chemotaxis: Involvement of Hyperactivation. PLoS ONE: 2011, 6(12);e28359 PMID:22163296
  14. R P Amann, S S Howards Daily spermatozoal production and epididymal spermatozoal reserves of the human male. J. Urol.: 1980, 124(2);211-5 PMID:6772801

Journals

  • Spermatogenesis | PubMed - Spermatogenesis "Spermatogenesis is a new quarterly, peer-reviewed journal that will publish high-quality articles covering all aspects of spermatogenesis."
  • WHO. WHO Laboratory Manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen. 5th ed. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2010. Online PDF

Reviews

Shosei Yoshida Stem cells in mammalian spermatogenesis. Dev. Growth Differ.: 2010, 52(3);311-7 PMID:20388168

Cathryn A Hogarth, Michael D Griswold The key role of vitamin A in spermatogenesis. J. Clin. Invest.: 2010, 120(4);956-62 PMID:20364093

Saleela M Ruwanpura, Robert I McLachlan, Sarah J Meachem Hormonal regulation of male germ cell development. J. Endocrinol.: 2010, 205(2);117-31 PMID:20144980

Louis Hermo, R-Marc Pelletier, Daniel G Cyr, Charles E Smith Surfing the wave, cycle, life history, and genes/proteins expressed by testicular germ cells. Part 1: background to spermatogenesis, spermatogonia, and spermatocytes. Microsc. Res. Tech.: 2010, 73(4);241-78 PMID:19941293

Louis Hermo, R-Marc Pelletier, Daniel G Cyr, Charles E Smith Surfing the wave, cycle, life history, and genes/proteins expressed by testicular germ cells. Part 2: changes in spermatid organelles associated with development of spermatozoa. Microsc. Res. Tech.: 2010, 73(4);279-319 PMID:19941292

Edward M Eddy, Kiyotaka Toshimori, Deborah A O'Brien Fibrous sheath of mammalian spermatozoa. Microsc. Res. Tech.: 2003, 61(1);103-15 PMID:12672126


D G de Rooij, L D Russell All you wanted to know about spermatogonia but were afraid to ask. J. Androl.: 2000, 21(6);776-98 PMID:11105904 | PDF

Articles

NCBI Bookshelf

MBoC - Sperm | MBoC - Highly simplified drawing of a cross-section of a seminiferous tubule in a mammalian testis | MBoC - Cytoplasmic bridges in developing sperm cells and their precursors

Search

Terms

  • asthenozoospermia - (asthenospermia) Term for reduced sperm motility and can be the cause of male infertility.
  • blood-testis barrier - (BTB) Formed by tight junctions, basal ectoplasmic specializations, desmosome-like junctions and gap junctions between adjacent Sertoli cells near the basement membrane of the seminiferous epithelium.
  • Leydig cell - (interstitial cell) Male gonad (testis) cell which secrete the androgen testosterone, beginning in the fetus. These cells are named after Franz von Leydig (1821 - 1908) a German scientist who histologically described these cells.
  • sperm annulus - (Jensen's ring; Latin, annulus = ring) A region of the mammalian sperm flagellum connecting the midpiece and the principal piece. The annulus is a septin-based structure formed from SEPT1, 4, 6, 7 and 12. Septins are polymerizing GTPases that can act as a scaffold forming hetero-oligomeric filaments required for cytokinesis and other cell cycle roles.
  • spermatogenesis - (Greek, genesis = origin, creation, generation) The term used to describe the process of diploid spermatagonia division and differentiation to form haploid spermatazoa within the testis (male gonad). The process includes the following cellular changes: meiosis, reoorganization of DNA, reduction in DNA content, reorganization of cellular organelles, morphological changes (cell shape). The final process of change in cell shape is also called spermiogenesis.
  • spermatogenesis - (Greek, genesis = origin, creation, generation) The maturation process of the already haploid spermatazoa into the mature sperm shape and organization. This process involves reorganization of cellular organelles (endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, mitochondria), cytoskeletal changes (microtubule organization) and morphological changes (cell shape, acrosome and tail formation).
  • spermatogonia - The cells located in the seminiferous tubule adjacent to the basal membrane that either divide and separate to renew the stem cell population, or they divide and stay together as a pair (Apr spermatogonia) connected by an intercellular cytoplasmic bridge to differentiate and eventually form spermatazoa.
  • spermatozoa head - Following spermiogenesis, the first region of the spermatozoa containing the haploid nucleus and acrosome. In humans, it is a flattened structure (5 µm long by 3 µm wide) with the posterior part of nuclear membrane forming the basal plate region. The human spermatozoa is about 60 µm long, actively motile and divided into 3 main regions (head, neck and tail).
  • spermatozoa neck - Following spermiogenesis, the second region of the spermatozoa attached to basal plate, transverse oriented centriole, contains nine segmented columns of fibrous material, continue as outer dense fibres in tail. In humans, it forms a short structure (1 µm). The human spermatozoa is about 60 µm long, actively motile and divided into 3 main regions (head, neck and tail).
  • spermatozoa tail - Following spermiogenesis, the third region of the spermatozoa that has a (head, neck and tail). The tail is also divided into 3 structural regions a middle piece, a principal piece and an end piece. In humans: the middle piece (5 µm long) is formed by axonema and dense fibres surrounded by mitochondria; the principal piece (45 µm long) fibrous sheath interconnected by regularly spaced circumferential hoops; the final end piece (5 µm long) has an axonema surrounded by small amount of cytoplasm and plasma membrane.
  • spermatogonial stem cells - (SSCs) The spermatagonia cells located beside the seminiferous tubule basal membrane that either divide and separate to renew the stem cell population, or they divide and stay together as a pair (Apr spermatogonia) connected by an intercellular cytoplasmic bridge to differentiate and eventually form spermatazoa.
  • sperm protein 56 - A component of the spermatozoa acrosomal matrix released to the sperm surface during capacitation.

External Links

External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name.

  • WHO. WHO Laboratory Manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen. 5th ed. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2010. Online PDF


Glossary Links

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols


Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2014) Embryology Spermatozoa Development. Retrieved July 23, 2014, from //embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Spermatozoa_Development

What Links Here?
Dr Mark Hill 2014, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G