Cell Division - Mitosis
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Some Recent Findings
- 3 Movies
- 4 Cell Changes
- 5 Mitosis Phases
- 6 Chromosome Changes
- 7 Cleavage of Zygote
- 8 Cytokinesis
- 9 Cell Organelles
- 10 References
- 11 Additional Images
- 12 External Links
- 13 Glossary Links
Normal cell division in all cells, except germ cells, occurs by 2 mechanical processes that initially divide the nucleus then the cell cytoplasm. This process produces two (daughter) cells that should be genetically identical to the parent cell.
- Mitosis segregation of chromosomes and formation of 2 nuclei
- Cytokinesis splitting of the cell as a whole into 2 daughter cells
- Recent Nobel Prizes- 2001 Cell Cycle, 2002 Cell Death
|Mitosis of the single zygote produces how many cells in the adult?|
| "In particular, the reported total cell number of a human being ranges between 1012 and 1016 and it is widely mentioned without a proper reference. ...A current estimation of human total cell number calculated for a variety of organs and cell types is presented. These partial data correspond to a total number of 3.72 × 1013."|
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Barbara Alcaraz Silva, Jessica R Stambaugh, Kyoko Yokomori, Jagesh V Shah, Michael W Berns DNA Damage to a single chromosome end delays anaphase onset. J. Biol. Chem.: 2014; PMID:24982423 Jessica Huck, Mengkun Zhang, Jerome Mettetal, Arijit Chakravarty, Karthik Venkatakrishnan, Xiaofei Zhou, Rob Kleinfield, Marc L Hyer, Karuppiah Kannan, Vaishali Shinde, Andy Dorner, Mark G Manfredi, Wen Chyi Shyu, Jeffrey A Ecsedy Translational exposure-efficacy modeling to optimize the dose and schedule of taxanes combined with the investigational Aurora A kinase inhibitor MLN8237 (alisertib). Mol. Cancer Ther.: 2014; PMID:24980948 Oleksandr Pastukhov, Stephanie Schwalm, Isolde Römer, Uwe Zangemeister-Wittke, Josef Pfeilschifter, Andrea Huwiler Ceramide Kinase Contributes to Proliferation but not to Prostaglandin E2 Formation in Renal Mesangial Cells and Fibroblasts. Cell. Physiol. Biochem.: 2014, 34(1);119-133 PMID:24977486 Weihao Li, Kai Huang, Haizhou Guo, Guanghui Cui Meis1 regulates proliferation of non-small-cell lung cancer cells. J Thorac Dis: 2014, 6(6);850-5 PMID:24977012 Norman Ertych, Ailine Stolz, Albrecht Stenzinger, Wilko Weichert, Silke Kaulfuß, Peter Burfeind, Achim Aigner, Linda Wordeman, Holger Bastians Increased microtubule assembly rates influence chromosomal instability in colorectal cancer cells. Nat. Cell Biol.: 2014; PMID:24976383
This movie shows a cell dividing by mitosis with a fluorescently labelled protein that is located at the kinetochores and along the axes of the chromosome arms. This allows you to see the chromosomes and the linking region (kinetochore) between chromosome pairs and the mitotic spindle microtubules.
- Chromosome condensation
- Nuclear envelope breakdown
- Cytoskeleton reorganization
- Spindle formation (MT) Contractile ring (MF)
- Organelle redistribution
- Mitosis Energy
- Cell division uses up a lot of energy, so cells ensure they have enough resources to complete the job before committing to it.
- Based on light microscopy of living cells light and electron microscopy of fixed and stained cells
- 5 Phases - prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
- Cytokinesis 6th stage overlaps the end of mitosis
- not a mitotic phase (discussed in cell cycle)
- Chromosomes dispersed in nucleus
- Gene expression
- Cytoskeleton and cell organelles - Distributed and functioning
- Mitochondria undergo independent proliferation/division
- Chromosome DNA has been earlier duplicated (S Phase)
- Chromosomes begin condensing
- Chromosome pairs (chromatids) held together at centromere
- Microtubules disassemble
- Mitotic spindle begins to form
- 3 sets of microtubules - (+) ends point away from centrosome at each pole.
- astral microtubules - anchor the pole end in position
- kinetochore microtubules - connected to chromosomes
- polar microtubules - form the structure of the spindle apparatus
At end of prophase nuclear envelope breaks down
- Microtubules now enter nuclear region
- Nuclear envelope forms vesicles around mitotic spindle
- Kinetochores form on centromere attach to some MTs of spindle
At end of prometaphase chromosomes move to metaphase plate
- Kinetochore MTs align chromosomes in one midpoint plane.
- Astrin is a spindle-associated protein required for chromosome alignment at the metaphase plate.
Metaphase ends when sister kinetochores separate
- Separation of sister Kinetochores
- shortening of Kinetochore microtubules pulls chromosome to spindle pole.
- Katanin is a microtubule-severing complex involved with this stage of microtubule dynamics.
Anaphase ends as nuclear envelope (membrane) begins to reform.
- Chromosomes arrive at spindle poles
- Kinetochore MTs lost
- Condensed chromosomes begin expanding
- Continues through cytokinesis
Cleavage of Zygote
Mouse zygote mitosis
|First metaphase||First anaphase|
Cleavage of the zygote forms 2 blastomeres and is cleavage with no cytoplasm synthesis.
- special "embryonic" cell cycle S phases and M phases alternate without any intervening G1 or G2 phases (MSMSMSMS, adult MG1SG2) therefore individual cell volume decreases
Cell division within these cells is initially synchronous (at the same time), then becomes asynchronously (at different times).
- slow- centre cells, larger fast- peripheral cells
- Links: Zygote | Cell Division - Mitosis | Movie - Early Cell Division | Movie - Week 1 Cell Cleavage | Carnegie stage 1
- Division of cytoplasmic contents
- Contractile ring forms at midpoint under membrane
- Microfilament ring - contracts forming cleavage furrow
- myosin II is the motor
- Eventually fully divides cytoplasm
- Divide independently of cell mitosis
- distributed into daughter cells
- localise at spindle poles
Peroxisome (red) location at Interphase (a) and during Mitosis (b and c)
- Associated with nuclear membrane.
- 2 processes - disassembly and reassembly
- Golgi stack undergoes a continuous fragmentation process
- fragments are distributed into daughter cells
- are reassembled into new Golgi stacks
- Unstacking - mediated by two mitotic kinases (cdc2 and plk)
- Vesiculation - mediated by COPI budding machinery ARF1 and the coatomer complex
- Fusion - formation of single cisternae by membrane fusion
- Restacking - requires dephosphorylation of Golgi stacking proteins by protein phosphatase PP2A
- Eva Bianconi, Allison Piovesan, Federica Facchin, Alina Beraudi, Raffaella Casadei, Flavia Frabetti, Lorenza Vitale, Maria Chiara Pelleri, Simone Tassani, Francesco Piva, Soledad Perez-Amodio, Pierluigi Strippoli, Silvia Canaider An estimation of the number of cells in the human body. Ann. Hum. Biol.: 2013; PMID:23829164
- Michaela Clever, Tomoko Funakoshi, Yasuhiro Mimura, Masatoshi Takagi, Naoko Imamoto The nucleoporin ELYS/Mel28 regulates nuclear envelope subdomain formation in HeLa cells. Nucleus: 2012, 3(2); PMID:22555603
- Penny A Tavormina, Marie-George Côme, Joanna R Hudson, Yin-Yuan Mo, William T Beck, Gary J Gorbsky Rapid exchange of mammalian topoisomerase II alpha at kinetochores and chromosome arms in mitosis. J. Cell Biol.: 2002, 158(1);23-9 PMID:12105179
- Russan NM. Let's Build a Spindle. ASCB Image & Video Library. 2008;CYT-190. Available at: http://cellimages.ascb.org/u?/p4041coll12,521
- Anja K Dunsch, Emily Linnane, Francis A Barr, Ulrike Gruneberg The astrin-kinastrin/SKAP complex localizes to microtubule plus ends and facilitates chromosome alignment. J. Cell Biol.: 2011, 192(6);959-68 PMID:21402792
- Dong Zhang, Gregory C Rogers, Daniel W Buster, David J Sharp Three microtubule severing enzymes contribute to the "Pacman-flux" machinery that moves chromosomes. J. Cell Biol.: 2007, 177(2);231-42 PMID:17452528
- Khursheed Iqbal, Seung-Gi Jin, Gerd P Pfeifer, Piroska E Szabó Reprogramming of the paternal genome upon fertilization involves genome-wide oxidation of 5-methylcytosine. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2011, 108(9);3642-7 PMID:21321204 | PMC2132672 | PNAS
- Simone Kredel, Franz Oswald, Karin Nienhaus, Karen Deuschle, Carlheinz Röcker, Michael Wolff, Ralf Heilker, G Ulrich Nienhaus, Jörg Wiedenmann mRuby, a bright monomeric red fluorescent protein for labeling of subcellular structures. PLoS ONE: 2009, 4(2);e4391 PMID:19194514 | PMC2633614 | PLoS One.
- Danming Tang, Kari Mar, Graham Warren, Yanzhuang Wang Molecular mechanism of mitotic Golgi disassembly and reassembly revealed by a defined reconstitution assay. J. Biol. Chem.: 2008, 283(10);6085-94 PMID:18156178
Search Pubmed: mitosis
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name.
- Nature - Cell Division Milestones
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2014) Embryology Cell Division - Mitosis. Retrieved July 4, 2014, from //php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Cell_Division_-_Mitosis
- Dr Mark Hill 2014, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G