The first diploid cell that forms following fertilization by fusion of the haploid oocyte (egg) and spermatozoa (sperm) resulting in the combination of their separate genomes. The first image shows the cell with the 2 pronuclei still present before fusion enclosed within the zona pellucida. In humans, this cell then undergoes a series of mitotic cell divisions, still enclosed within the zona pellucida, during the first few days of development to form 2 blastomeres then a solid cell mass called the morula.
- Zygote Links: Fertilization | Week 1 | Carnegie stage 1 | Morula | Blastocyst | ART | SCNT | Category:Zygote
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Carmela Cortell, Pascal Salvetti, Thierry Joly, Maria Pilar Viudes-de-Castro Effect of different superovulation stimulation protocols on adenosine triphosphate concentration in rabbit oocytes. Zygote: 2014;1-7 PMID:24735658 A F Pereira, L M Melo, V J F Freitas, D F Salamone Phosphorylated H2AX in parthenogenetically activated, in vitro fertilized and cloned bovine embryos. Zygote: 2014;1-9 PMID:24735637 Nancy M Mozingo Lectin uptake and incorporation into the calcitic spicule of sea urchin embryos. Zygote: 2014;1-7 PMID:24735584 Sergio Branciamore, Andrei S Rodin, Arthur D Riggs, Sergei N Rodin Enhanced evolution by stochastically variable modification of epigenetic marks in the early embryo. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2014; PMID:24733912 Yanzheng Song, Yanyan Zhao, Fengju Zhang, Yanqiu Yu, Ling Ma [Establishment of a mutant Lumican transgenic mouse model]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi: 2014, 50(1);37-41 PMID:24709132
Human Zygote Size
Animation based upon individual images of mouse maternal and paternal genomes.
|Quicktime | Flash|
Mouse zygote pronuclei
Most ribosomal DNA located around the Nucleolar-Precursor Bodies (NPBs), with some associated with pericentromeric filaments (extending from the NPBs towards the nuclear periphery) as well as rDNA signals joining two NPBs.
Formation of Zygote
- male and female pronuclei, 2 nuclei approach each other and nuclear membranes break down
- DNA replicates, first mitotic division
- sperm contributes centriole which organizes mitotic spindle
Conceptus - term refers to all material derived from this fertilized zygote and includes both the embryo and the non-embryonic tissues (placenta, fetal membranes).
Zygote Protein Expression
The table above shows the pattern of protein expression (as percentages of total) in the mouse zygote according to 14 molecular function categories.
- Links: Germinal vesicle oocyte protein expression | MII oocyte protein expression | Zygote Protein Expression | Mouse Development | Oocyte Development | Zygote
Male Pronucleus Reprogramming
|Mouse zygote paternal genome reprogramming
Mouse zygotes male pronucleus contains 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) thought to be formed by enzymatic oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC).
Mouse zygote mitosis
- ↑ Kathy K Niakan, Kevin Eggan Analysis of human embryos from zygote to blastocyst reveals distinct gene expression patterns relative to the mouse. Dev. Biol.: 2012; PMID:23261930
- ↑ Francesco Silvestre, Alessandra Gallo, Annunziata Cuomo, Tiziana Covino, Elisabetta Tosti Role of cyclic AMP in the maturation of Ciona intestinalis oocytes. Zygote: 2010;1-7 PMID:20810008
- ↑ Chao-Bo Li, Zhen-Dong Wang, Zhong Zheng, Li-Li Hu, Shu-Qi Zhong, Lei Lei Number of blastomeres and distribution of microvilli in cloned mouse embryos during compaction. Zygote: 2011, 19(3);271-6 PMID:20735894
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Khursheed Iqbal, Seung-Gi Jin, Gerd P Pfeifer, Piroska E Szabó Reprogramming of the paternal genome upon fertilization involves genome-wide oxidation of 5-methylcytosine. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2011, 108(9);3642-7 PMID:21321204 | PMC2132672 | PNAS
- ↑ Tiphaine Aguirre-Lavin, Pierre Adenot, Amélie Bonnet-Garnier, Gaétan Lehmann, Renaud Fleurot, Claire Boulesteix, Pascale Debey, Nathalie Beaujean 3D-FISH analysis of embryonic nuclei in mouse highlights several abrupt changes of nuclear organization during preimplantation development. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2012, 12(1);30 PMID:23095683 | BMC Dev Biol.
- ↑ Shufang Wang, Zhaohui Kou, Zhiyi Jing, Yu Zhang, Xinzheng Guo, Mengqiu Dong, Ian Wilmut, Shaorong Gao Proteome of mouse oocytes at different developmental stages. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2010, 107(41);17639-44 PMID:20876089 | PNAS
- Zygote An international journal dedicated to the rapid publication of original research in early embryology, Zygote covers interdisciplinary studies in animals and humans, from gametogenesis through fertilization to gastrulation.
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2014) Embryology Zygote. Retrieved April 17, 2014, from http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Zygote
- Dr Mark Hill 2014, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G