The first diploid cell that forms following fertilization by fusion of the haploid oocyte (egg) and spermatozoa (sperm) resulting in the combination of their separate genomes. The first image shows the cell with the 2 pronuclei still present before fusion enclosed within the zona pellucida. In humans, this cell then undergoes a series of mitotic cell divisions, still enclosed within the zona pellucida, during the first few days of development to form 2 blastomeres then a solid cell mass called the morula.
- Zygote Links: Fertilization | Week 1 | Carnegie stage 1 | Morula | Blastocyst | ART | SCNT | Category:Zygote
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Sung-Sik Kang, Sosuke Ofuji, Kei Imai, Weiping Huang, Keisuke Koyama, Yojiro Yanagawa, Yoshiyuki Takahashi, Masashi Nagano The efficacy of the well of the well (WOW) culture system on development of bovine embryos in a small group and the effect of number of adjacent embryos on their development. Zygote: 2014;1-4 PMID:24598303 Miyuki Sato, Ryosuke Konuma, Katsuya Sato, Kotone Tomura, Ken Sato Fertilization-induced K63-linked ubiquitylation mediates clearance of maternal membrane proteins. Development: 2014, 141(6);1324-31 PMID:24595290 Astrid Stecher, Pierre Vanderzwalmen, Martin Zintz, Barbara Wirleitner, Maximilian Schuff, Dietmar Spitzer, Nicolas H Zech Transfer of blastocysts with deviant morphological and morphokinetic parameters at early stages of in-vitro development: a case series. Reprod. Biomed. Online: 2014; PMID:24581992 Ceri E Van Slyke, Yvonne M Bradford, Monte Westerfield, Melissa A Haendel The zebrafish anatomy and stage ontologies: representing the anatomy and development of Danio rerio. J Biomed Semantics: 2014, 5(1);12 PMID:24568621 Klaus-Peter Zollner, Theresa Hofmann, Ursula Zollner Good fertilization results associated with high IL-1beta concentrations in follicular fluid of IVF patients. J Reprod Med: , 58(11-12);485-90 PMID:24568042
Human Zygote Size
Animation based upon individual images of mouse maternal and paternal genomes.
|Quicktime | Flash|
Mouse zygote pronuclei
Most ribosomal DNA located around the Nucleolar-Precursor Bodies (NPBs), with some associated with pericentromeric filaments (extending from the NPBs towards the nuclear periphery) as well as rDNA signals joining two NPBs.
Formation of Zygote
- male and female pronuclei, 2 nuclei approach each other and nuclear membranes break down
- DNA replicates, first mitotic division
- sperm contributes centriole which organizes mitotic spindle
Conceptus - term refers to all material derived from this fertilized zygote and includes both the embryo and the non-embryonic tissues (placenta, fetal membranes).
Zygote Protein Expression
The table above shows the pattern of protein expression (as percentages of total) in the mouse zygote according to 14 molecular function categories.
- Links: Germinal vesicle oocyte protein expression | MII oocyte protein expression | Zygote Protein Expression | Mouse Development | Oocyte Development | Zygote
Male Pronucleus Reprogramming
|Mouse zygote paternal genome reprogramming
Mouse zygotes male pronucleus contains 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) thought to be formed by enzymatic oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC).
Mouse zygote mitosis
- ↑ Kathy K Niakan, Kevin Eggan Analysis of human embryos from zygote to blastocyst reveals distinct gene expression patterns relative to the mouse. Dev. Biol.: 2012; PMID:23261930
- ↑ Francesco Silvestre, Alessandra Gallo, Annunziata Cuomo, Tiziana Covino, Elisabetta Tosti Role of cyclic AMP in the maturation of Ciona intestinalis oocytes. Zygote: 2010;1-7 PMID:20810008
- ↑ Chao-Bo Li, Zhen-Dong Wang, Zhong Zheng, Li-Li Hu, Shu-Qi Zhong, Lei Lei Number of blastomeres and distribution of microvilli in cloned mouse embryos during compaction. Zygote: 2011, 19(3);271-6 PMID:20735894
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Khursheed Iqbal, Seung-Gi Jin, Gerd P Pfeifer, Piroska E Szabó Reprogramming of the paternal genome upon fertilization involves genome-wide oxidation of 5-methylcytosine. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2011, 108(9);3642-7 PMID:21321204 | PMC2132672 | PNAS
- ↑ Tiphaine Aguirre-Lavin, Pierre Adenot, Amélie Bonnet-Garnier, Gaétan Lehmann, Renaud Fleurot, Claire Boulesteix, Pascale Debey, Nathalie Beaujean 3D-FISH analysis of embryonic nuclei in mouse highlights several abrupt changes of nuclear organization during preimplantation development. BMC Dev. Biol.: 2012, 12(1);30 PMID:23095683 | BMC Dev Biol.
- ↑ Shufang Wang, Zhaohui Kou, Zhiyi Jing, Yu Zhang, Xinzheng Guo, Mengqiu Dong, Ian Wilmut, Shaorong Gao Proteome of mouse oocytes at different developmental stages. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2010, 107(41);17639-44 PMID:20876089 | PNAS
- Zygote An international journal dedicated to the rapid publication of original research in early embryology, Zygote covers interdisciplinary studies in animals and humans, from gametogenesis through fertilization to gastrulation.
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2014) Embryology Zygote. Retrieved March 12, 2014, from http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Zygote
- Dr Mark Hill 2014, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G