Urinary Bladder Development

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Interior of the urinary bladder

Introduction

The paired adult kidneys filter blood, reabsorb water, have endocrine functions and excrete waste. The waste in the form of urine for excretion, collects initially in the renal pelvis and flows through the ureters to the urinary bladder. The wall of the urinary bladder is composed of layers of smooth muscle and in the male has close anatomical relationship with the prostate gland.


The common name for the urinary bladder is simply the "bladder".



Renal Links: Introduction | Lecture - Renal Development | Urinary Bladder | Stage 13 | Stage 22 | Fetal | Renal Movies | Stage 22 Movie | Histology | Abnormalities | Category:Renal
Historic Embryology
1907 Urogenital images | 1921 Urogenital Development | 1917 Urogenital System | 1926 Embryo 22 Somites
| Prostate Development
Historic Embryology: Historic - The Urinary Bladder

Some Recent Findings

Mouse cloacal septation
  • Spatio-temporal distribution of Smads and role of Smads/TGF-β/BMP-4 in the regulation of mouse bladder organogenesis[1]"Although Shh, TGF-β and BMP-4 regulate radial patterning of the bladder mesenchyme and smooth muscle differentiation, it is not known what transcription factors, local environmental cues or signaling cascades mediate bladder smooth muscle differentiation. ...Based on the Smad expression patterns, we suggest that individual or combinations of Smads may be necessary during mouse bladder organogenesis and may be critical mediators for bladder smooth muscle differentiation." TGF-beta
  • Endodermal origin of bladder trigone inferred from mesenchymal-epithelial interaction [2] "In the classic view of bladder development the trigone originates from the mesoderm derived wolffian ducts while the remainder of the bladder originates from the endoderm derived urogenital sinus. Recent molecular developmental studies have questioned the veracity of this received wisdom, suggesting an endodermal origin for the trigone. To shed further light on this issue we observed mesenchymal-epithelial interactions between trigone epithelium and fetal urogenital sinus mesenchyma to infer the trigonal germ layer of origin."
More recent papers
Mark Hill.jpg
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent


Search term: Bladder Embryology

Bartosz Pula, Tadeusz Tazbierski, Aleksandra Zamirska, Bozena Werynska, Andrzej Bieniek, Jacek Szepietowski, Janusz Rys, Piotr Dziegiel, Marzena Podhorska-Okolow Metallothionein 3 Expression in Normal Skin and Malignant Skin Lesions. Pathol. Oncol. Res.: 2014; PMID:25015776 Zhaowei Zhu, Tianyuan Xu, Li Wang, Xianjin Wang, Shan Zhong, Chen Xu, Zhoujun Shen MicroRNA-145 directly targets the insulin-like growth factor receptor I in human bladder cancer cells. FEBS Lett.: 2014; PMID:24999188 Laura Teodori, Alessandra Costa, Rosa Marzio, Barbara Perniconi, Dario Coletti, Sergio Adamo, Bhuvanesh Gupta, Attila Tarnok Native extracellular matrix: a new scaffolding platform for repair of damaged muscle. Front Physiol: 2014, 5;218 PMID:24982637 G Fieggen, K Fieggen, C Stewart, L Padayachy, J Lazarus, K Donald, S Dix-Peek, Z Toefy, A Figaji Spina bifida: a multidisciplinary perspective on a many-faceted condition. S. Afr. Med. J.: 2014, 104(3);213-7 PMID:24897828 Jun Nagai, Nobuyuki Kondoh, Keisuke Kajio, Toru Tsujimura [Small cell carcinoma in a vesical diverticulum: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo: 2014, 60(3);151-3 PMID:24759504

Textbook References

  • The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (8th Edition) by Keith L. Moore and T.V.N Persaud - Moore & Persaud Chapter 13 p303-346
  • Larsen’s Human Embryology by GC. Schoenwolf, SB. Bleyl, PR. Brauer and PH. Francis-West - Chapter 10 p261-306

Movies

Urogenital sinus 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Renal Overview
Page | Play
Renal 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Nephron
Page | Play
Urogenital septum 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Urogenital Septum
Page | Play
Trigone 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Trigone
Page | Play
Stage13-GIT-icon.jpg
 ‎‎Gastrointestinal
Page | Play
Stage22-CNS-icon.jpg
 ‎‎Urogenital
Page | Play
Renal blood 01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Renal Vascular
Page | Play

Renal System Development | All Renal Cartoons

Cloaca

File:Endoderm development Endoderm 002 icon.jpg

Animation - Endoderm forming the cloaca and the primitive urinary bladder continuous with the allantois.

  • hindgut region ending at the cloacal membrane
  • divided (ventro-dorsally) by the urogenital septum
    • ventral - common urogenital sinus
    • dorsal - rectum

Common Urogenital Sinus

  • superior end continuous with allantois
  • common urogenital sinus and mesonephric duct fuse (connect)
  • differentiates to form the bladder
  • inferior end forms urethra
    • this will be different in male and female development

Urogenital septum 001 icon.jpg

Urogenital Septum

Urogenital septum 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Urogenital Septum
Page | Play


Embryonic Urinary Bladder

Adult bladder
  • early origins of the bladder at the superior end of the common urogenital sinus
  • 8 open inferiorly to the cloaca and superiorly to the allantois
  • Septation of the claoca - divides the anterior region to the primordial bladder component from the posterior rectal component.
  • associated ureters and urethra

Dorsal view of developing bladder

Trigone 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Trigone
Page | Play
  • Ultrasound measurement of the bladder size can be used as a diagnostic tool for developmental abnormalities.

Bladder Structure

Urinary bladder histology

Can be described anatomically by its 4 layers from outside inward:

  • Serous - the superior or abdominal surfaces and the lateral" surfaces of the bladder are covered by visceral peritoneum, the serous membrane (serosa) of the abdominal cavity, consisting of mesthelium and elastic fibrous connective tissue.
  • Muscular - the detrusor muscle is the muscle of the urinary bladder wall.
  • Submucosa - connects the muscular layer with the mucous layer.
  • Mucosa - (mucus layer) a transitional epithelium layer formed into folds (rugae).
Urinary bladder wall drawing

Detrusor Muscle

  • The adult detrusor muscle consists of three layers of smooth (involuntary) muscle fibres.
    • external layer - fibres arranged longitudinally
    • middle layer - fibres arranged circularly
    • internal layer - fibres arranged longitudinally

Ureter Development

  • The adult ureter is a thick-walled muscular tube, 25 - 30 cm in length, running from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
  • Anatomically can be described in two parts the abdominal part (pars abdominalis) and pelvic part (pars pelvina).
  • The ureter is composed of three layers: outer fibrous layer (tunica adventitia), muscular layer (tunica muscularis) and mucous layer (tunica mucosa).
  • The muscular layer can also be subdivided into 3 fibre layers: an external longitudinal, a middle circular, and an internal longitudinal.

Trigone Development

Trigone 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Trigone
Page | Play

Week 8

The Carnegie stage 22 human male embryo is 27mm (CRL) in size and approximately equal to day 54 - 56 of development. These images have been selected to show some key features of late embryo development.

Stage 22 image 196.jpg Stage 22 image 197.jpg Stage 22 image 198.jpg Stage 22 image 213.jpg Stage 22 image 214.jpg
G5 urogenital G6 urogenital G7 urogenital unlabeled labeled
Links: Stage 13 - Renal | Stage 22 - Renal | Carnegie stage 13 | Carnegie stage 22

Fetal Urinary Bladder

Fetal Development - 10 Weeks - Early female fetal bladder development. Anatomically lying behind the pubic symphysis and in front of the developing uterus. Surrounded by the developing detrusor muscle and the superior end extending towards the ventral body wall herniation.

Fetal 10wk urogenital 4.jpg Fetal 10wk urogenital 3.jpg
midline section medial section
Links: Fetal Development - 10 Weeks

Newborn Urinary Bladder

Gray1137.jpg Gray1138.jpg
The Newborn Male Bladder The Newborn Female Bladder

Animal Models

Mouse bladder development E12.5-E16.5.jpg Mouse bladder development E12.5-E16.5[1]


Abnormalities

Australian abnormalities pie urogen.png

Horseshoe Kidney

Horseshoe kidney
  • fusion of the lower poles of the kidney.
  • During migration from the sacral region the two metanephric blastemas can come into contact, mainly at the lower pole.
  • The ureters pass in front of the zone of fusion of the kidneys.
  • The kidneys and ureters usually function adequately but there is an increased incidence of upper urinary tract obstruction or infection.
  • Some horseshoe variations have been described as having associated ureter abnormalities including duplications.

Urorectal Septum Malformation

  • thought to be a deficiency in caudal mesoderm which in turn leads to the malformation of the urorectal septum and other structures in the pelvic region.
  • Recent research has also identified the potential presence of a persistent urachus prior to septation of the cloaca (common urogenital sinus).

Bladder

  • absent or small bladder - associated with renal agenesis.

Bladder Exstrophy

Bladder_Exstrophy
  • developmental abnormality associated with bladder development.
  • origins appear to occur not just by abnormal bladder development, but by a congenital malformation of the ventral wall of abdomen (between umbilicus and pubic symphysis).
  • There may also be other anomolies associated with failure of closure of abdominal wall and bladder (epispadias, pubic bone anomolies).

Ureter and Urethra

  • Ureter - Duplex Ureter
  • Urethra- Urethral Obstruction and Hypospadias


Prune Belly Syndrome

  • lower urinary tract obstruction
  • mainly male
  • fetal urinary system ruptures leading to collapse and "prune belly" appearance.

Stage 22

Stage 22 image 210.jpg

Images

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Syed S Islam, Reza Bayat Mokhtari, Sushil Kumar, Joe Maalouf, Sara Arab, Herman Yeger, Walid A Farhat Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Smads and Role of Smads/TGF-β/BMP-4 in the Regulation of Mouse Bladder Organogenesis. PLoS ONE: 2013, 8(4);e61340 PMID:23620745
  2. Stacy T Tanaka, Kenichiro Ishii, Romano T Demarco, John C Pope, John W Brock, Simon W Hayward Endodermal origin of bladder trigone inferred from mesenchymal-epithelial interaction. J. Urol.: 2010, 183(1);386-91 PMID:19914648 PMC2794964 | J Urol.

Textbooks

  • The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (8th Edition) by Keith L. Moore and T.V.N Persaud - Moore & Persaud Chapter 13 p303-346
  • Larsen’s Human Embryology by GC. Schoenwolf, SB. Bleyl, PR. Brauer and PH. Francis-West - Chapter 10 p261-306
  • Before We Are Born (5th ed.) Moore and Persaud Chapter14 p289-326
  • Essentials of Human Embryology, Larson Chapter 10 p173-205
  • Human Embryology, Fitzgerald and Fitzgerald Chapter 21-22 p134-152

Online Textbooks

Reviews

Ellen Shapiro Clinical implications of genitourinary embryology. Curr Opin Urol: 2009, 19(4);427-33 PMID:19461520

Andrea Brenner-Anantharam, Cristina Cebrian, Richard Guillaume, Romulo Hurtado, Tung-Tien Sun, Doris Herzlinger Tailbud-derived mesenchyme promotes urinary tract segmentation via BMP4 signaling. Development: 2007, 134(10);1967-75 PMID:17442697

Frank Costantini Renal branching morphogenesis: concepts, questions, and recent advances. Differentiation: 2006, 74(7);402-21 PMID:16916378


Search Bookshelf intermediate mesoderm | bladder development

Search PubMed

Search Pubmed: urinary bladder development | bladder development

Terms

bladder exstrophy - A congenital malformation with bladder open to ventral wall of abdomen (between umbilicus and pubic symphysis) and may have other anomolies associated with failure of closure of abdominal wall and bladder (epispadias, pubic bone anomolies).

hydronephrosis - (congenital hydronephrosis, Greek, hydro = water) A kidney abnormality due to partial or complete obstruction at the pelvi-ureteric junction. This leads to a grossly dilated renal pelvis causing extensive renal damage before birth.

mesonephric duct - (= Wollfian duct) An early developing urogenital duct running the length of the embryo that will differentiate and form the male reproductive duct system. In females this duct degenerates (some remnants may remain associated in broad ligament).

proteinuria - The abnormal presence of protein in the urine and an indicator of diesease including diabetic kidney disease (DKD, diabetic nephropathy).

renal - (Latin, renes = kidney) Term used in relation to the kidney and associated structures (renal pelvis, renal artery)

ureter - The two ureters are hollow tubes that link and carries urine from kidney to the bladder. The tubes have a muscular wall lined with transitional epithelium.

urethra - The single muscular tube that links and carries urine from the bladder to the exterior. In humans, the urethral length differs between the sexes (male longer, female shorter).

urinary - Term used to describe all components of the kidney system including the bladder, ureters and urethra.

urine - Term used to describe the liquid waste produced by the kidney, stored in the bladder and excreted from teh body through the urethra.

urorectal septum - (URS) The structure which develops to separate the cloaca (common urogenital sinus) into an anterior urinary part and a posterior rectal part.

Wolffian duct - (= mesonephric duct, preferred terminology), runs from the mesonephros to cloaca, differentiates to form the male vas deferens and in the female regresses. Named after Caspar Friedrich Wolff (1733-1794), a German scientist and early embryology researcher and is said to have established the doctrine of germ layers. (More? Caspar Friedrich Wolff)


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2014) Embryology Urinary Bladder Development. Retrieved July 23, 2014, from //embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Urinary_Bladder_Development

What Links Here?
Dr Mark Hill 2014, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G