Talk:Respiratory System - Abnormalities
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Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Federica Pederiva, Leopoldo Martinez, J A Tovar Enteric Nervous System and Esophageal-Gastrointestinal Motility in Experimental Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia. Eur J Pediatr Surg: 2013; PMID:23686664 E Lupo, F Castoldi, L Maestri, M Rustico, C Dani, G Lista Outcome of congenital diaphragmatic hernia: analysis of implicated factors. Minerva Pediatr.: 2013, 65(3);279-85 PMID:23685379 G Rocha, M J Baptista, J Correia-Pinto, H Guimarães Congenital diaphragmatic hernia: experience of 14 years. Minerva Pediatr.: 2013, 65(3);271-8 PMID:23685378 Christopher D Baker, Claudine P Black, Sharon L Ryan, Vivek Balasubramaniam, Steven H Abman Cord Blood Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells from Newborns with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia. J. Pediatr.: 2013; PMID:23684109
Hyaline Membrane Disease
Zoe Iliodromiti, Dimitrios Zygouris, Stavros Sifakis, Kalliopi I Pappa, Panagiotis Tsikouras, Nikolaos Salakos, Angelos Daniilidis, Charalambos Siristatidis, Nikolaos Vrachnis Acute lung injury in preterm fetuses and neonates: mechanisms and molecular pathways. J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.: 2013; PMID:23611524 Federico Cicora, Pablo Stringa, Diego Guerrieri, Javier Roberti, Fernanda Toniolo, Clemente Raimondi, Daniela Vásquez Evaluation of histological damage of solid organs after donor preconditioning with thymoglobulin in an experimental rat model. Transpl. Immunol.: 2013; PMID:23597700 Shixu E Yan, Thomas Lemmin, Suzanne Salvi, Ekkehart Lausch, Andrea Superti-Furga, Dariusz Rokicki, Matteo Dal Peraro, F Gisou van der Goot In Depth Analysis of Hyaline Fibromatosis Syndrome Frameshift Mutations at the Same Site Reveal the Necessity of Personalized Therapy. Hum. Mutat.: 2013; PMID:23554269 S Shrestha, U Karki Indications of admission and outcome in a newly established neonatal intensive care unit in a developing country (Nepal). Nepal Med Coll J: 2012, 14(1);64-7 PMID:23441499 Sema Yilmaz, Kenan Daglioglu, Dincer Yildizdas, Ibrahim Bayram, Derya Gumurdulu, Sait Polat The effectiveness of heliox in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Ann Thorac Med: 2013, 8(1);46-52 PMID:23440627
Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2011 Dec 7;6:81.
Leboulanger N, Garabédian EN. Source Paediatric Otolaryngology-Head and Neck surgery Department, UPMC-Paris VI University, Armand-Trousseau Children's Hospital, Paris, France. firstname.lastname@example.org
A laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft (LC) is a congenital malformation characterized by an abnormal, posterior, sagittal communication between the larynx and the pharynx, possibly extending downward between the trachea and the esophagus. The estimated annual incidence of LC is 1/10,000 to 1/20,000 live births, accounting for 0.2% to 1.5% of congenital malformations of the larynx. These incidence rates may however be underestimated due to difficulty in diagnosing minor forms and a high mortality rate in severe forms. A slightly higher incidence has been reported in boys than in girls. No specific geographic distribution has been found. Depending on the severity of the malformation, patients may present with stridor, hoarse cry, swallowing difficulties, aspirations, cough, dyspnea and cyanosis through to early respiratory distress. Five types of laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft have been described based on the downward extension of the cleft, which typically correlates with the severity of symptoms: Type 0 laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft to Type 4 laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft. LC is often associated with other congenital abnormalities/anomalies (16% to 68%), mainly involving the gastro-intestinal tract, which include laryngomalacia, tracheo-bronchial dyskinesia, tracheo-bronchomalacia (mostly in types 3 and 4), and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The syndromes most frequently associated with an LC are Opitz/BBB syndrome, Pallister Hall syndrome, VACTERL/VATER association, and CHARGE syndrome. Laryngeal clefts result from failure of fusion of the posterior cricoid lamina and abnormal development of the tracheo-esophageal septum. The causes of the embryological developmental anomalies leading to LC are not known but are thought to be multifactorial. LC appears to be mostly sporadic although some familial cases with suspected autosomal dominant transmission have been reported. The age of diagnosis depends mainly on the severity of the clinical symptoms and therefore on the extent of the LC. Diagnosis is made either based on clinical manifestations or on investigations, such as endoscopy, X-ray, CT scan, performed for other conditions. Differential diagnoses include tracheo-bronchial fistula, gastro-esophageal reflux disease and neurological swallowing disorders, as well as laryngomalacia and laryngeal palsy. Prenatal diagnosis of LC has never been reported, although associated anomalies may be detected on fetal ultrasonography. Once the cleft is diagnosed, it is essential to determine its length to orient the management and treatment approach. Management involves maintenance of satisfactory ventilation, prevention of secondary pulmonary complications as a result of repeated aspirations, and adequate feeding. Endotracheal intubation may be required for respiratory distress in severe cases. Treatment requires endoscopic or external surgery to close the cleft. Surgery should be performed as early as possible to avoid complications related to aspiration and gastric reflux, except in type 0 and type 1 cases in which conservative measures must first be attempted. The prognosis is variable depending on the severity of the LC and associated malformations. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment and management help to reduce mortality and morbidity.
© 2011 Leboulanger and Garabédian; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia candidate genes derived from embryonic transcriptomes
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Feb 21;109(8):2978-83. Epub 2012 Feb 6.
Russell MK, Longoni M, Wells J, Maalouf FI, Tracy AA, Loscertales M, Ackerman KG, Pober BR, Lage K, Bult CJ, Donahoe PK. Source Pediatric Surgical Research Laboratories, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a common (1 in 3,000 live births) major congenital malformation that results in significant morbidity and mortality. The discovery of CDH loci using standard genetic approaches has been hindered by its genetic heterogeneity. We hypothesized that gene expression profiling of developing embryonic diaphragms would help identify genes likely to be associated with diaphragm defects. We generated a time series of whole-transcriptome expression profiles from laser captured embryonic mouse diaphragms at embryonic day (E)11.5 and E12.5 when experimental perturbations lead to CDH phenotypes, and E16.5 when the diaphragm is fully formed. Gene sets defining biologically relevant pathways and temporal expression trends were identified by using a series of bioinformatic algorithms. These developmental sets were then compared with a manually curated list of genes previously shown to cause diaphragm defects in humans and in mouse models. Our integrative filtering strategy identified 27 candidates for CDH. We examined the diaphragms of knockout mice for one of the candidate genes, pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor 1 (Pbx1), and identified a range of previously undetected diaphragmatic defects. Our study demonstrates the utility of genetic characterization of normal development as an integral part of a disease gene identification and prioritization strategy for CDH, an approach that can be extended to other diseases and developmental anomalies.
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2012 Jan 3;7:1.
Tovar JA. Source Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain. email@example.com
Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH) is defined by the presence of an orifice in the diaphragm, more often left and posterolateral that permits the herniation of abdominal contents into the thorax. The lungs are hypoplastic and have abnormal vessels that cause respiratory insufficiency and persistent pulmonary hypertension with high mortality. About one third of cases have cardiovascular malformations and lesser proportions have skeletal, neural, genitourinary, gastrointestinal or other defects. CDH can be a component of Pallister-Killian, Fryns, Ghersoni-Baruch, WAGR, Denys-Drash, Brachman-De Lange, Donnai-Barrow or Wolf-Hirschhorn syndromes. Some chromosomal anomalies involve CDH as well. The incidence is < 5 in 10,000 live-births. The etiology is unknown although clinical, genetic and experimental evidence points to disturbances in the retinoid-signaling pathway during organogenesis. Antenatal diagnosis is often made and this allows prenatal management (open correction of the hernia in the past and reversible fetoscopic tracheal obstruction nowadays) that may be indicated in cases with severe lung hypoplasia and grim prognosis. Treatment after birth requires all the refinements of critical care including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation prior to surgical correction. The best hospital series report 80% survival but it remains around 50% in population-based studies. Chronic respiratory tract disease, neurodevelopmental problems, neurosensorial hearing loss and gastroesophageal reflux are common problems in survivors. Much more research on several aspects of this severe condition is warranted.
Choriodecidual group B streptococcal inoculation induces fetal lung injury without intra-amniotic infection and preterm labor in Macaca nemestrina.
PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e28972. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028972. Epub 2011 Dec 21.
Adams Waldorf KM, Gravett MG, McAdams RM, Paolella LJ, Gough GM, Carl DJ, Bansal A, Liggitt HD, Kapur RP, Reitz FB, Rubens CE. Source Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract BACKGROUND: Early events leading to intrauterine infection and fetal lung injury remain poorly defined, but may hold the key to preventing neonatal and adult chronic lung disease. Our objective was to establish a nonhuman primate model of an early stage of chorioamnionitis in order to determine the time course and mechanisms of fetal lung injury in utero. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ten chronically catheterized pregnant monkeys (Macaca nemestrina) at 118-125 days gestation (term=172 days) received one of two treatments: 1) choriodecidual and intra-amniotic saline (n=5), or 2) choriodecidual inoculation of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) 1×10(6) colony forming units (n=5). Cesarean section was performed regardless of labor 4 days after GBS or 7 days after saline infusion to collect fetal and placental tissues. Only two GBS animals developed early labor with no cervical change in the remaining animals. Despite uterine quiescence in most cases, blinded review found histopathological evidence of fetal lung injury in four GBS animals characterized by intra-alveolar neutrophils and interstitial thickening, which was absent in controls. Significant elevations of cytokines in amniotic fluid (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6) and fetal plasma (IL-8) were detected in GBS animals and correlated with lung injury (p<0.05). Lung injury was not directly caused by GBS, because GBS was undetectable in amniotic fluid (~10 samples tested/animal), maternal and fetal blood by culture and polymerase chain reaction. In only two cases was GBS cultured from the inoculation site in low numbers. Chorioamnionitis occurred in two GBS animals with lung injury, but two others with lung injury had normal placental histology. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A transient choriodecidual infection can induce cytokine production, which is associated with fetal lung injury without overt infection of amniotic fluid, chorioamnionitis or preterm labor. Fetal lung injury may, thus, occur silently without symptoms and before the onset of the fetal systemic inflammatory response syndrome. © 2011 Adams Waldorf et al.
Congenital lung malformations
J Bras Pneumol. 2011 Apr;37(2):259-71.
[Article in English, Portuguese] Andrade CF, Ferreira HP, Fischer GB. Source Santo Antônio Children's Hospital, Santa Casa Sisters of Mercy Hospital Complex, Porto Alegre, Brazil. email@example.com
Congenital lung malformations are rare and vary widely in their clinical presentation and severity, depending mostly on the degree of lung involvement and their location in the thoracic cavity. They can manifest at any age and can be the source of significant morbidity and mortality in infants and children. Individuals with congenital lung malformations can present with respiratory symptoms at birth or can remain asymptomatic for long periods. Recently, there has been an increase in the early diagnosis of these malformations, a change that is attributable to the routine use of prenatal ultrasound. The clinical manifestation of these malformations varies from respiratory distress in the immediate postnatal period to an incidental finding on chest X-rays. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment offer the possibility of absolutely normal lung development. The treatment of asymptomatic patients with lung malformations is controversial, because the prognosis of these diseases is unpredictable. The management of these lesions depends on the type of malformation and symptoms. Because of the risk of complications, most authors recommend resection of the lesion at the time of diagnosis. Lobectomy is the procedure of choice and yields excellent long-term results. This article describes the principal congenital lung malformations, their diagnosis, and the controversies regarding treatment.
Interstitial lung diseases in children
Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2010 Aug 20;5:22.
Clement A, Nathan N, Epaud R, Fauroux B, Corvol H. Source Pediatric Pulmonary Department, Reference Center for Rare Lung Diseases, AP-HP, Hôpital Trousseau, Inserm UMR S-938, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Paris, F-75012 France. firstname.lastname@example.org
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in infants and children comprises a large spectrum of rare respiratory disorders that are mostly chronic and associated with high morbidity and mortality. These disorders are characterized by inflammatory and fibrotic changes that affect alveolar walls. Typical features of ILD include dyspnea, diffuse infiltrates on chest radiographs, and abnormal pulmonary function tests with restrictive ventilatory defect and/or impaired gas exchange. Many pathological situations can impair gas exchange and, therefore, may contribute to progressive lung damage and ILD. Consequently, diagnosis approach needs to be structured with a clinical evaluation requiring a careful history paying attention to exposures and systemic diseases. Several classifications for ILD have been proposed but none is entirely satisfactory especially in children. The present article reviews current concepts of pathophysiological mechanisms, etiology and diagnostic approaches, as well as therapeutic strategies. The following diagnostic grouping is used to discuss the various causes of pediatric ILD: 1) exposure-related ILD; 2) systemic disease-associated ILD; 3) alveolar structure disorder-associated ILD; and 4) ILD specific to infancy. Therapeutic options include mainly anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and/or anti-fibrotic drugs. The outcome is highly variable with a mortality rate around 15%. An overall favorable response to corticosteroid therapy is observed in around 50% of cases, often associated with sequelae such as limited exercise tolerance or the need for long-term oxygen therapy.
PMID 20727133 PMCID: PMC2939531
Surfactant Metabolism Dysfunction and Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease (chILD)
Ulster Med J. 2009 Jan;78(1):7-9.
McFetridge L, McMorrow A, Morrison PJ, Shields MD. Source Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children, Queens University Belfast, Grosvenor Road, Belfast BT12 6BA, UK.
Abstract Surfactant deficiency and the resultant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) seen in preterm infants is a major cause of respiratory morbidity in this population. Until recently, the contribution of surfactant to respiratory morbidity in infancy was limited to the neonatal period. It is now recognised that inborn errors of surfactant metabolism leading to surfactant dysfunction account for around 10% of childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD). These abnormalities can be detected by blood sampling for mutation analysis, thereby avoiding the need for lung biopsy in some children with chILD.
Genetic disorders of surfactant dysfunction
Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2009 Jul-Aug;12(4):253-74.
Wert SE, Whitsett JA, Nogee LM. Source Perinatal Institute, Section of Neonatology, Perinatal and Pulmonary Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, and the Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229-3039, USA. email@example.com
Mutations in the genes encoding the surfactant proteins B and C (SP-B and SP-C) and the phospholipid transporter, ABCA3, are associated with respiratory distress and interstitial lung disease in the pediatric population. Expression of these proteins is regulated developmentally, increasing with gestational age, and is critical for pulmonary surfactant function at birth. Pulmonary surfactant is a unique mixture of lipids and proteins that reduces surface tension at the air-liquid interface, preventing collapse of the lung at the end of expiration. SP-B and ABCA3 are required for the normal organization and packaging of surfactant phospholipids into specialized secretory organelles, known as lamellar bodies, while both SP-B and SP-C are important for adsorption of secreted surfactant phospholipids to the alveolar surface. In general, mutations in the SP-B gene SFTPB are associated with fatal respiratory distress in the neonatal period, and mutations in the SP-C gene SFTPC are more commonly associated with interstitial lung disease in older infants, children, and adults. Mutations in the ABCA3 gene are associated with both phenotypes. Despite this general classification, there is considerable overlap in the clinical and histologic characteristics of these genetic disorders. In this review, similarities and differences in the presentation of these disorders with an emphasis on their histochemical and ultrastructural features will be described, along with a brief discussion of surfactant metabolism. Mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of lung disease caused by mutations in these genes will also be discussed.
Secretory phospholipase A2 pathway in various types of lung injury in neonates and infants: a multicentre translational study
BMC Pediatr. 2011 Nov 8;11:101.
De Luca D, Capoluongo E, Rigo V; Study group on Secretory Phospholipase in Paediatrics (SSPP). Collaborators (19) Source Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Dept of Emergency and Intensive Care, University Hospital A.Gemelli, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart-Rome, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract BACKGROUND: Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) is a group of enzymes involved in lung tissue inflammation and surfactant catabolism. sPLA2 plays a role in adults affected by acute lung injury and seems a promising therapeutic target. Preliminary data allow foreseeing the importance of such enzyme in some critical respiratory diseases in neonates and infants, as well. Our study aim is to clarify the role of sPLA2 and its modulators in the pathogenesis and clinical severity of hyaline membrane disease, infection related respiratory failure, meconium aspiration syndrome and acute respiratory distress syndrome. sPLA2 genes will also be sequenced and possible genetic involvement will be analysed. METHODS/DESIGN: Multicentre, international, translational study, including several paediatric and neonatal intensive care units and one coordinating laboratory. Babies affected by the above mentioned conditions will be enrolled: broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, serum and whole blood will be obtained at definite time-points during the disease course. Several clinical, respiratory and outcome data will be recorded. Laboratory researchers who perform the bench part of the study will be blinded to the clinical data. DISCUSSION: This study, thanks to its multicenter design, will clarify the role(s) of sPLA2 and its pathway in these diseases: sPLA2 might be the crossroad between inflammation and surfactant dysfunction. This may represent a crucial target for new anti-inflammatory therapies but also a novel approach to protect surfactant or spare it, improving alveolar stability, lung mechanics and gas exchange.
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: where have all the vessels gone? Roles of angiogenic growth factors in chronic lung disease
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007 May 15;175(10):978-85. Epub 2007 Feb 1.
Thébaud B, Abman SH. Source Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Vascular Biology Group, University of Alberta, HMRC 407, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2S2, Canada. email@example.com
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia and emphysema are significant global health problems at the extreme stages of life. Both are characterized by arrested alveolar development or loss of alveoli, respectively. Both lack effective treatment strategies. Knowledge about the genetic control of branching morphogenesis in mammals derives from investigations of the respiratory system in Drosophila, but mechanisms that regulate alveolar development remain poorly understood. Even less is known about regulation of the growth and development of the pulmonary vasculature. Understanding how alveoli and the underlying capillary network develop, and how these mechanisms are disrupted in disease states, are critical for developing effective therapies for lung diseases characterized by impaired alveolar structure. Recent observations have challenged old notions that the development of the blood vessels in the lung passively follows that of the airways. Rather, increasing evidence suggests that lung blood vessels actively promote alveolar growth during development and contribute to the maintenance of alveolar structures throughout postnatal life. Our working hypothesis is that disruption of angiogenesis impairs alveolarization, and that preservation of vascular growth and endothelial survival promotes growth and sustains the architecture of the distal airspace. Furthermore, the explosion of interest in stem cell biology suggests potential roles for endothelial progenitor cells in the pathogenesis or treatment of lung vascular disease. In this Pulmonary Perspective, we review recent data on the importance of the lung circulation, specifically examining the relationship between dysmorphic vascular growth and impaired alveolarization, and speculate on how these new insights may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Comment in Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007 Oct 1;176(7):724-5; author reply 725.
Interstitial lung disease in children -- genetic background and associated phenotypes
Respir Res. 2005 Apr 8;6:32.
Hartl D, Griese M. Source Pediatric Pneumology, Childrens' hospital of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
Interstitial lung disease in children represents a group of rare chronic respiratory disorders. There is growing evidence that mutations in the surfactant protein C gene play a role in the pathogenesis of certain forms of pediatric interstitial lung disease. Recently, mutations in the ABCA3 transporter were found as an underlying cause of fatal respiratory failure in neonates without surfactant protein B deficiency. Especially in familiar cases or in children of consanguineous parents, genetic diagnosis provides an useful tool to identify the underlying etiology of interstitial lung disease. The aim of this review is to summarize and to describe in detail the clinical features of hereditary interstitial lung disease in children. The knowledge of gene variants and associated phenotypes is crucial to identify relevant patients in clinical practice.
Outcomes of congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a population-based study in Western Australia
Pediatrics. 2005 Sep;116(3):e356-63. Outcomes of congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a population-based study in Western Australia. Colvin J, Bower C, Dickinson JE, Sokol J.
Department of Neonatal Pediatrics, Women's and Children's Health Service, Perth, Australia. Erratum in:
Pediatrics. 2006 May;117(5):1870. Abstract OBJECTIVES: There have been many recent reports of improved survival rates for congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), largely derived from institution-based data. These are often flawed by case selection bias. The objectives of this study were to document the true incidence, management, and outcomes of CDH in a geographically defined population over a 12-year period and to determine the changing trends in these over time. We also sought to ascertain the prenatal and postnatal factors associated with morbidity and death among these infants.
METHODS: A retrospective study of all cases of CDH in Western Australia from 1991 to 2002 was conducted. Cases were identified from 5 independent databases within the Western Australian health network, including the Western Australian Birth Defects Registry. All fetuses and neonates diagnosed with CDH in Western Australia during this period were identified, including miscarriages, stillbirths, and terminations of pregnancies in which a diagnosis of fetal CDH had been made, as well as those diagnosed postnatally. Cases not known to involve CDH until diagnosis at autopsy were also included. Infants with diaphragmatic eventration were excluded from the study. Detailed information was obtained from review of maternal and infant medical records.
RESULTS: One hundred sixteen cases of CDH were identified. Of these, 71 (61%) infants were born alive and 37 survived beyond 1 year of age (52% of live-born infants, 32% of all cases of CDH). Pregnancies involving 38 (33%) fetuses were terminated electively, 4 (3%) fetuses were aborted spontaneously, and 3 (3%) fetuses were stillborn. Another major congenital anomaly was present in 54 (47%) cases. Twenty-one (18%) cases had other anomalies that were likely to be fatal. Of all cases with an additional major anomaly, 42 (78%) died. Twenty-seven (71%) of 38 fetuses for whom the pregnancy was terminated had another major anomaly. Twenty-three (32%) live-born infants had another major anomaly (4 of which were considered fatal conditions); however, this did not affect their survival rates. Fifty-three percent of cases were diagnosed prenatally, and 49% of these pregnancies were then terminated. Of live-born infants with prenatally diagnosed CDH, 10 (33%) survived beyond 1 year of age. The gestational age at diagnosis did not affect the survival rate for live-born infants. Postnatal diagnosis occurred in 55 (47%) cases. Of these, 41 (74%) case subjects were born alive and diagnosed on clinical grounds after birth. In the remaining 14 cases, the diagnosis was made in postmortem examinations of fetuses from pregnancies that were terminated for other reasons (8 cases) or after spontaneous abortion or stillbirth (5 cases). Significant differences were found between prenatally and postnatally diagnosed live-born infants. Among live-born infants, prenatal diagnosis was associated with a significantly reduced survival rate (33%, compared with 66% for postnatally diagnosed infants). Prenatally diagnosed live-born infants were of lower birth weight and were born at an earlier gestational age. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups in the onset of labor (spontaneous or induced) or in the rate of elective cesarean sections. Prenatally diagnosed live-born infants were more likely to be delivered in a tertiary perinatal center and were intubated more commonly at delivery. No difference was found in the Apgar scores at either 1 or 5 minutes between the groups. Of 71 live-born infants, 37 (52%) survived to 1 year of age. The majority of deaths occurred within the first 7 days of life (44%). Preoperative air leaks occurred for 16 (22%) infants, of whom 14 (88%) died. Factors found to predict death of live-born infants included prenatal diagnosis, right-sided hernia, major air leak, earlier gestational age at birth, lower birth weight, and lower Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes. Over the course of the decade, there were significant increases in the proportion of cases in which the diagnosis of CDH was made with prenatal ultrasonography and in the number of live-born infants born at the tertiary perinatal center. The mortality rate for all cases, the mortality rate for live-born infants, and the proportion of pregnancies involving prenatally diagnosed cases that were terminated electively were all greater in the later epoch but not significantly so.
CONCLUSIONS: This was a comprehensive, population-based study of CDH, with full case ascertainment, large sample size, and complete outcome data for all cases. The majority of published studies of CDH examined specific patient populations, such as neonates referred to tertiary pediatric surgical centers. Invariably, those studies failed to detect the demise of cases with CDH before arrival at the referral center, whether through termination of pregnancy, in utero fetal demise, or postnatal death occurring before transfer. Exclusion of these cases from calculations of mortality rates results in significant case selection bias. In our study, 35% of live-born infants died before referral or transport. The population of infants reaching the tertiary surgical center represented only 40% of the total cases of CDH. Wide variations in reported survival rates occur throughout the literature. These differences reflect the influence of this case selection bias, as well as variable referral policies and management practices. For our study population, survival rates differed vastly depending on the subgroup analyzed. Ninety-two percent of postoperative infants survived beyond 1 year of age, as did 80% of infants who reached the surgical referral center. However, only 52% of live-born infants, 32% of all cases, and 16% of all prenatally diagnosed cases survived. Therefore, the overall mortality rate for this condition remains high, despite increased prenatal detection, transfer to tertiary institutions for delivery, and advances in neonatal care, and is influenced significantly by the rate of prenatal termination. In our study, 33% of all cases of CDH and 49% of prenatally diagnosed fetuses underwent elective termination of pregnancy. This large number of fetal terminations confounds the accurate assessment of the true outcomes of this condition.