Talk:Developmental Signals - Bone Morphogenetic Protein
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Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) is induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) cytokines in human granulosa cells
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2012 Jun 7. [Epub ahead of print]
Ogura-Nose S, Yoshino O, Osuga Y, Shi J, Hiroi H, Yano T, Taketani Y. Source Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan. Abstract OBJECTIVES: Serum concentration of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) is used as a biomarker in clinical practice. Therefore, it is important to elucidate the mechanism by which AMH is regulated in granulosa cells (GC). An important first step in understanding AMH regulation is to determine which factors up-regulate AMH expression. STUDY DESIGN: Human GC, obtained from 28 women undergoing oocyte retrieval for in vitro fertilization, were stimulated with various intraovarian cytokines including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, -6, -7 -15, activin-A and growth differentiation factor (GDF)-9 (100ng/ml). The expression of AMH mRNA was evaluated with reverse transcription and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and AMH protein in cultured supernatant was measured with EIA kit. RESULTS: BMP-2, -6, -7 and -15, but not activin-A and GDF-9, significantly induced AMH expression in GC at mRNA and protein level, while all stimuli increased FSH receptor mRNA and decreased steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) mRNA level. CONCLUSIONS: Among the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily, BMP-2, -6, -7 and -15 significantly induced AMH expression in human GC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Developmental stalling and organ-autonomous regulation of morphogenesis
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Nov 29;108(48):19270-5. Epub 2011 Nov 14.
Miletich I, Yu WY, Zhang R, Yang K, Caixeta de Andrade S, Pereira SF, Ohazama A, Mock OB, Buchner G, Sealby J, Webster Z, Zhao M, Bei M, Sharpe PT. Source Department of Craniofacial Development, Dental Institute, Kings College London, Guys Hospital, London SE1 6RT, United Kingdom.
Timing of organ development during embryogenesis is coordinated such that at birth, organ and fetal size and maturity are appropriately proportioned. The extent to which local developmental timers are integrated with each other and with the signaling interactions that regulate morphogenesis to achieve this end is not understood. Using the absolute requirement for a signaling pathway activity (bone morphogenetic protein, BMP) during a critical stage of tooth development, we show that suboptimal levels of BMP signaling do not lead to abnormal morphogenesis, as suggested by mutants affecting BMP signaling, but to a 24-h stalling of the intrinsic developmental clock of the tooth. During this time, BMP levels accumulate to reach critical levels whereupon tooth development restarts, accelerates to catch up with development of the rest of the embryo and completes normal morphogenesis. This suggests that individual organs can autonomously control their developmental timing to adjust their stage of development to that of other organs. We also find that although BMP signaling is critical for the bud-to-cap transition in all teeth, levels of BMP signaling are regulated differently in multicusped teeth. We identify an interaction between two homeodomain transcription factors, Barx1 and Msx1, which is responsible for setting critical levels of BMP activity in multicusped teeth and provides evidence that correlates the levels of Barx1 transcriptional activity with cuspal complexity. This study highlights the importance of absolute levels of signaling activity for development and illustrates remarkable self-regulation in organogenesis that ensures coordination of developmental processes such that timing is subordinate to developmental structure.