India Statistics

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Introduction

India

This page links to the current online resources available to explore Indian population and birth data.


A recent UN study has identified a significant trend in falling female infants to male infants.[1]


2014 - Maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is currently 178 per 100 000 live births.


Statistics Links: Introduction | Reports | World Population | World Fertility | World Infant Mortality | Maternal Mortality | Australia | Brazil | Canada | China | Germany | India | Indonesia | Europe | United Kingdom | United States | Australia’s mothers and babies 2009 | Australia’s mothers and babies 2008 | Australia’s mothers and babies 2007 | Abnormal Development - Australian Statistics | BGD Tutorial - Applied Embryology and Teratology | AIHW National Perinatal Statistics Unit | Category:Statistics | Category:India

Some Recent Findings

India sex ratio graph 1951-2011
India sex ratio (1951-2011)
  • Indian sex ration has fallen from 976 girls for every 1000 boys in 1961, to 927 in 2001 and to 918 in 2011.[1]
  • Universal Neonatal Hearing Screening - Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India[2] "The neonates were subjected to a two stage sequential screening using the BERAphone. Neonates suspected of hearing loss underwent confirmatory testing using auditory steady state response audiometry and serological testing for TORCH infections and connexin 26 gene. ...Universal neonatal hearing screening using BERAphone is a feasible service, vital for early identification and rehabilitation of neonatal hearing loss. The estimated prevalence of confirmed hearing loss was comparable to that in literature. Overcoming the large numbers of loss to follow-up proves to be a challenge in the implementation of such a program." Hearing test
  • India 1 year without polio Eradication "India has not had a case of wild poliovirus nor detected the virus in sewage sampling since 13 January 2011." Polio Virus
  • Neonatal Mortality Levels for 193 Countries in 2009 with Trends since 1990: A Systematic Analysis of Progress, Projections, and Priorities.[3] " In 2009, an estimated 3.3 million babies died in the first month of life-compared with 4.6 million neonatal deaths in 1990-and more than half of all neonatal deaths occurred in five countries of the world (44% of global livebirths): India 27.8% (19.6% of global livebirths), Nigeria 7.2% (4.5%), Pakistan 6.9% (4.0%), China 6.4% (13.4%), and Democratic Republic of the Congo 4.6% (2.1%)."
  • Sex ratio at birth in India, its relation to birth order, sex of previous children and use of indigenous medicine[4] "Evidence from the second children clearly shows the sex-ratio is being manipulated by human interventions. More mothers with previous girls tend to use traditional medicines for sex selection, in their subsequent pregnancies. Those taking such medication do not seem to be helped according to expectations. They seem to rely on this method and so are less likely use more definitive methods like sex selective abortions. This is the first such prospective investigation of sex ratio in second children looked at against the sex of previous children. More studies are needed to confirm the findings."
More recent papers
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This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent


Search term: India Embryology

Ramya Nair, Vikram Jeet Singh, Sujith Raj Salian, Sneha Guruprasad Kalthur, Antony Sylvan D'souza, Pallavi K Shetty, Srinivas Mutalik, Guruprasad Kalthur, Satish Kumar Adiga Methyl parathion inhibits the nuclear maturation, decreases the cytoplasmic quality in oocytes and alters the developmental potential of embryos of Swiss albino mice. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.: 2014; PMID:25038315 Manish Pathak, Dipanshu Narula A case of duodenal atresia with apple peel appearance: challenging the current embryology. J Clin Neonatol: 2014, 3(2);112-4 PMID:25024980 Prakash Anil Castelino, Prashantha Naik, Jagadeesh Prasad Dasappa, R S Sujayraj, K Sharath Chandra, Kumara Chaluvaiah, Ramya Nair, M V Sandya Kumari, Guruprasad Kalthur, Satish Kumar Adiga Synthesis of novel thiadiazolotriazin-4-ones and study of their mosquito-larvicidal and antibacterial properties. Eur J Med Chem: 2014, 84C;194-199 PMID:25019476 Anil Mandal, Annie Mathai Images in clinical medicine. Bilateral wandering lens in an infant. N. Engl. J. Med.: 2014, 371(2);e3 PMID:25006743 Sachin D Honguntikar, Shubhashree Uppangala, Sujith R Salian, Guruprasad Kalthur, Pratap Kumar, Satish K Adiga Laser-assisted hatching of cleavage-stage embryos impairs developmental potential and increases DNA damage in blastocysts. Lasers Med Sci: 2014; PMID:24989334

Birth Weight and Nutrition

World population (countries more than 100 million)
World population (countries more than 100 million)
  • 28% of infants with low birthweight, 2005-2009
  • 41% Early initiation of breastfeeding, 2005-2009
  • 46% of children (2005-2009) who are: exclusively breastfed (<6 months)
  • 57% of children (2005-2009) who are: breastfed with complementary food (6-9 months)
  • 77% of children (2005-2009) who are: still breastfeeding (20-23 months)
  • 48% of under-fives (2003 -2009) suffering from: underweight (NCHS/WHO), moderate & severe
  • 43% of under-fives (2003 -2009) suffering from: underweight (WHO), moderate & severe
  • 16% of under-fives (2003 -2009) suffering from: underweight (WHO), severe
  • 20% of under-fives (2003 -2009) suffering from: wasting (WHO), moderate & severe
  • 48% of under-fives (2003 -2009) suffering from: stunting (WHO), moderate & severe
  • 66% Full coverage (2009) Vitamin A supplementation coverage rate (6-59 months)
  • 51% of households consuming iodized salt, 2003-2009

(Data: Unicef 2011)


Links: Iodine Deficiency

Abnormal Development

  • approximately half a million children are born annually with congenital malformations[5]
    • most of which are related to genetic or chromosomal aberration
  • estimated 9,000 babies with thalassaemia major
  • estimated 5,200 babies with sickle cell disease
  • estimated 21,000 babies with Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome)
Links: Trisomy 21 | Cell Division - Meiosis | Genetic Abnormalities

Cleft Lip and Palate

A study was conducted in 2001 in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India, with a population of 76 million.[6]

  • birth rate of clefts was found to be 1.09 for every 1000 live births.
  • 65% of the children born with clefts were males.
  • type of cleft showed 33% had CL, 64% had CLP, 2% had CP and 1% had rare craniofacial clefts
  • Unilateral cleft lips were found in 79% of the patients.
    • Of the unilateral cleft lips 64% were left sided.
  • birth rate of clefts was found to be
    • comparable with other Asian studies
    • lower than found in other studies in Caucasian populations
    • higher than in African populations.

See also the 2010 review "A status report on management of cleft lip and palate in India".[7]


Palate Links: Palate Development | Cleft Lip and Palate | Cleft Palate | Head Development | Category:Palate

General Statistics

Population 1,189,172,906 (July 2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 2

Age structure

  • 0-14 years: 29.7% (male 187,450,635/female 165,415,758)
  • 15-64 years: 64.9% (male 398,757,331/female 372,719,379)
  • 65 years and over: 5.5% (male 30,831,190/female 33,998,613) (2011 est.)

Median age

  • total: 26.2 years
  • male: 25.6 years
  • female: 26.9 years (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

  • 1.344% (2011 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 86

Birth rate

  • 20.97 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 84

Death rate

  • 7.48 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 117

Sex ratio

  • at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
  • under 15 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
  • 15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
  • 65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
  • total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Infant mortality rate

World neonatal death map
The distorted world map above shows the relative distribution of early neonatal death by country. Note the over-representation of India compared with Europe, USA and Australia.[8]
  • total: 47.57 deaths/1,000 live births
  • country comparison to the world: 51
  • male: 46.18 deaths/1,000 live births
  • female: 49.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
Links: Stillbirth and Perinatal Death

Life expectancy at birth

  • total population: 66.8 years
  • country comparison to the world: 161
  • male: 65.77 years
  • female: 67.95 years (2011 est.)

Total fertility rate

  • 2.62 children born/woman (2011 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 79

Age structure

  • 0-14 years: 29.7% (male 187,450,635/female 165,415,758)
  • 15-64 years: 64.9% (male 398,757,331/female 372,719,379)
  • 65 years and over: 5.5% (male 30,831,190/female 33,998,613) (2011 est.)

Median age

  • total: 26.2 years
  • male: 25.6 years
  • female: 26.9 years (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

  • 1.344% (2011 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 86

Birth rate

  • 20.97 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 84
Links: Birth

Death rate

  • 7.48 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 117

Sex ratio

India sex ratio graph 1951-2011
India sex ratio (1951-2011)
  • at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
  • under 15 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
  • 15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
  • 65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
  • total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Infant mortality rate

  • total: 47.57 deaths/1,000 live births
  • country comparison to the world: 51
  • male: 46.18 deaths/1,000 live births
  • female: 49.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)


Life expectancy at birth

  • total population: 66.8 years
  • country comparison to the world: 161
  • male: 65.77 years
  • female: 67.95 years (2011 est.)

Total fertility rate

  • 2.62 children born/woman (2011 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 79

HIV/AIDS

  • 2.4 million (2009 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 4


HIV/AIDS - deaths

  • 170,000 (2009 est.)
  • country comparison to the world: 3

Major infectious diseases

  • degree of risk: high
  • food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
  • vectorborne diseases: chikungunya, dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria
  • animal contact disease: rabies
  • water contact disease: leptospirosis
  • highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country

Ethnic groups

Data: The World Factbook India and other sources.


References

  1. 1.0 1.1 UN Women. Sex ratios and gender biased sex selection: history, debates and future directions. 2014. online | [www.unwomensouthasia.org/assets/Sex-Ratios-and-Gender-Biased-Sex-Selection.pdf PDF]
  2. Ann Mary Augustine, Atanu Kumar Jana, Kurien Anil Kuruvilla, Sumita Danda, Anjali Lepcha, Jareen Ebenezer, Roshna Rose Paul, Amit Tyagi, Achamma Balraj Universal Neonatal Hearing Screening - Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India. Indian Pediatr: 2013; PMID:24277966
  3. Mikkel Zahle Oestergaard, Mie Inoue, Sachiyo Yoshida, Wahyu Retno Mahanani, Fiona M Gore, Simon Cousens, Joy E Lawn, Colin Douglas Mathers, on behalf of the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation and the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group Neonatal Mortality Levels for 193 Countries in 2009 with Trends since 1990: A Systematic Analysis of Progress, Projections, and Priorities. PLoS Med: 2011, 8(8);e1001080 PMID:21918640 | PLoS Med.
  4. Manchanda S, Saikia B, Gupta N, Chowdhary S, Puliyel JM. Sex ratio at birth in India, its relation to birth order, sex of previous children and use of indigenous medicine. PLoS One. 2011;6(6):e20097. PMID21697990
  5. WHO - Oladapo OT. Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling for prenatal diagnosis: RHL commentary (last revised: 1 April 2009). The WHO Reproductive Health Library; Geneva: World Health Organization.
  6. Srinivas Gosla Reddy, Rajgopal R Reddy, Ewald M Bronkhorst, Rajendra Prasad, Anke M Ettema, Hermann F Sailer, Stefaan J Bergé Incidence of cleft Lip and palate in the state of Andhra Pradesh, South India. Indian J Plast Surg: 2010, 43(2);184-9 PMID:21217978
  7. A Gopalakrishna, Karoon Agrawal A status report on management of cleft lip and palate in India. Indian J Plast Surg: 2010, 43(1);66-75 PMID:20924454
  8. Danny Dorling Worldmapper: the human anatomy of a small planet. PLoS Med.: 2007, 4(1);e1 PMID:17411312 | PLoS


External Links

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2014) Embryology India Statistics. Retrieved August 31, 2014, from https://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=India_Statistics

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© Dr Mark Hill 2014, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G