File:Liver polyploidy 01.jpg
Polyploid hepatocyte mitoses in vitro with multipolar spindles and chromosome segregation defects.
- A - bipolar spindles were established and maintained by centrosome clustering (in about half of tetraploid mitoses)
- B C - centrosomes oriented on 3-4 distinct poles (reflecting either true multipolar spindles or alignment of prometaphase chromosomes from binucleated hepatocytes)
- D - octaploid hepatocytes established multipolar spindles with as many as 8 poles
- E - about 1% of cells in anaphase or telophase were oriented with tripolar spindles
- F - hepatocytes with 2 discrete mitotic spindles synchronized in metaphase
- G - hepatocytes with 2 discrete mitotic spindles synchronized in anaphase
- I - L - mitotic figures similar to those seen in cultured hepatocytes were also seen during hepatocyte proliferation in vivo
See supplementary movies for recordings of mitotic divisions.
- cells were fixed with methanol
- Primary antibodies for alpha-tubulin (clone DM1A, Sigma)
- Primary antibodies were detected with species-specific secondaries conjugated to Alexafluor 488 or Alexafluor 555 (Invitrogen).
- Nuclei were stained with 40 μg/ml Hoechst 33342 (Invitrogen).
Original File Name: Fig. 3 Nature09414-f3.2.jpg
Andrew W Duncan, Matthew H Taylor, Raymond D Hickey, Amy E Hanlon Newell, Michelle L Lenzi, Susan B Olson, Milton J Finegold, Markus Grompe The ploidy conveyor of mature hepatocytes as a source of genetic variation. Nature: 2010, 467(7316);707-10 PMID:20861837 | PMC2967727 | Nature
Reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd.
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