Abnormal Development - Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

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Introduction

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) facial features[1]

This disorder was clinically described (USA) in humans about 30 years ago (1973), while historically alcohol's teratogenic effects were identified in the early 20th century in a mix with the prohibition cause of the period.


Consuming alcohol during pregnancy is the cause of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), consisting of a variable degree of birth defects and mental retardation, initially identified by a reduced head size and distinctive facial features.


Similar effects without the obvious alterations to appearance, but with nervous system effects, are sometimes typified as Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE). Alcohol is able to cross the placenta from maternal circulation through the placenta into fetal circulation.


Exposure of embryos in vitro to ethanol simulates premature differentiation of prechondrogenic mesenchyme of the facial primordia.[2] This result may explain some facial abnormalities associated with FAS, the mechanism of which is still unknown.


Alcohol intake is also one of several factor known to impact upon birthweight. In Australia (2005) 6.4% of all liveborn babies were of low birthweight (less than 2,500 grams).


Cell death (apoptosis) induced by alcohol has also been suggested as relevant to craniofacial abnormalities and neurological development. The neurological effects (FAS limits IQ to around 70) may be due to cell death in the embryonic neuroepithelium (the outer layer of the developing neural tube) at an early developmental stage. Some additional evidence suggests that alcohol could also directly damage DNA.


These developmental abnormalities are maternal in origin and are not genetic, though there are probably genetic elements involved with alcoholism (More? OMIM alcoholism).


This Syndrome is 100% preventable.


Environmental Links: Introduction | Low Folic Acid | Iodine Deficiency | Nutrition | Drugs | Australian Drug Categories | USA Drug Categories | Thalidomide | Herbal Drugs | Illegal Drugs | Smoking | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | TORCH Infections | Viral Infection | Bacterial Infection | Zoonotic Infection | Toxoplasmosis | Malaria | Iodine Deficiency | Maternal Diabetes | Maternal Hyperthermia | Maternal Inflammation | Hypoxia | Biological Toxins | Chemicals | Heavy Metals | Radiation | Prenatal Diagnosis | Neonatal Diagnosis | International Classification of Diseases | Fetal Origins Hypothesis


Some Recent Findings

  • Prenatal Ethanol Exposure Disrupts Intraneocortical Circuitry, Cortical Gene Expression, and Behavior in a Mouse Model of FASD[3] "We document novel anatomical and gene expression abnormalities in the neocortex of newborn mice exposed to ethanol in utero. This is the first study to demonstrate large-scale changes in intraneocortical connections and disruption of normal patterns of neocortical gene expression in any prenatal ethanol exposure animal model. Neuroanatomical defects and abnormal neocortical RZRβ, Id2, and Cadherin8 expression patterns are observed in PrEE newborns, and abnormal behavior is present in 20-d-old PrEE mice. "
  • Diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS): German guideline version 2013[4] "Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) belongs to the umbrella of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and affects 0.02-0.8% of all annual births with a high number of undetected cases. The aim of the German guideline version 2013 is to provide objectively evaluated, evidence-based, clinically relevant and easily applicable diagnostic criteria for the full picture FAS. The following diagnostic criteria for FAS resulted: at least one deficit of growth, three defined facial characteristics and one functional or structural anomaly of the central nervous system. Confirmation of intrauterine alcohol exposure is not considered as a prerequisite for FAS diagnosis. The German guideline presented here constitutes an unbiased evidence-based approach to the diagnosis of patients with fetal alcohol syndrome. It includes a practical pocket guide FAS for a quick overview of the diagnostic workup in everyday clinical work." 2013 German Guidelines
  • Health initiatives by Indigenous people in Australia[5] "June Oscar is an Aboriginal woman from Marninwarntikura Women's Resource Centre, Fitzroy Crossing, in the Kimberley region of the Northern Territory, Australia, where about 4500 Aboriginal people live in more than 45 communities. She had attended 50 funerals in 1 year, many of which were for suicides related to alcohol abuse. She was also concerned about the one in four babies born with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in the region, which she regarded as a particular disaster for an oral-based culture." (Includes a video)
  • Around 143,000 alcohol and other drug treatment episodes were provided in Australia in 2008-09[6] "More episodes of this treatment were for alcohol than any other drug type, and this proportion has now risen four years in a row. ...As seen in previous years, most treatment episodes (66%) were provided to male clients."
  • Proceedings of the 2008 annual meeting of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group.[7]
More recent papers
Mark Hill.jpg
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent


Search term: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Alia Koch, Sidney Eisig Syndromes with Unusual Facies. Atlas Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am: 2014, 22(2);205-210 PMID:25172001 Larissa Horta Esper, Erikson Felipe Furtado Identifying maternal risk factors associated with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: a systematic review. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry: 2014; PMID:25164262 Anita J Fuglestad, Christopher J Boys, Pi-Nian Chang, Bradley S Miller, Judith K Eckerle, Lindsay Deling, Birgit A Fink, Heather L Hoecker, Marie K Hickey, Jose M Jimenez-Vega, Jeffrey R Wozniak Overweight and Obesity Among Children and Adolescents with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.: 2014; PMID:25159809 Alberto Granato, Andrea De Giorgio Alterations of neocortical pyramidal neurons: turning points in the genesis of mental retardation. Front Pediatr: 2014, 2;86 PMID:25157343 Paulos Yigazu, Vaneet Kalra, Deniz Altinok Brainstem Disconnection in a Late Preterm Neonate With Classic Features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Pediatr. Neurol.: 2014; PMID:25152965

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

"Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) is an umbrella term describing the range of effects that can occur in an individual whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. These effects may include physical, mental, behavioral, and/or learning disabilities with possible lifelong implications. The term FASD is not intended for use as a clinical diagnosis." [8]

Fetal Alcohol Effect (FAE), Alcohol-related Birth Defect (ARBD), and Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) are terms also used to describe a the spectrum of conditions related to prenatal alcohol exposure.

About Alcohol

Ethanol structure
Ethanol structure 3D-balls

The pure chemical, alcohol is generally available in alcoholic beverages at between 0.5 - 40% concentration. Metabolic rates for alcohol differ between men and women and is also dependent on body size. (SDS datasheet for alcohol)

The neurological euphoria induced by alcohol has been associated with the rapid release of dopamine in limbic areas of the brain.

Not all FAS babies are from alcoholics, but they do represent a significant population more at risk. The genetics of alcoholism are multifactorial, with several candidate genes identified as associated with the disease. (More? OMIM - Alcoholism)

Alcohol Statistics

Statistical information is often difficult to isolate directly, as alcohol is often combined with other drugs (tobacco, illicit drugs, etc).

There is an interesting "American paradox" that Americans have a relatively low rate of per capita alcohol consumption, yet the USA has the highest incidence of FAS (20 times all other countries) in the world.

USA studies by the CDC have reported FAS prevalence rates from 0.2 to 1.5 cases per 1,000 births across various populations. Disadvantaged groups, Native Americans and Australians, and other minorities have been documented to have rates as high as three to five FAS affected children per 1,000 children.[8]

Other studies reflecting a variety of ascertainment methodologies have produced estimates ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 cases per 1,000 live births. Using the CDC FAS estimates, among the approximately 4 million infants born each year, an estimated 1,000 to 6,000 will be born with FAS. Studies of particularly vulnerable populations yield prevalence estimates that far exceed those of other common disabilities.

Binge Drinking

Tracking binge drinking among U.S. childbearing-age women.[9] "The estimated binge drinking prevalence among childbearing-age women 18-44 years (USA) for the years 2001, 2002, and 2003 was 11.9%, 12.4%, and 13.0%, respectively. The estimated number of childbearing-age women who engaged in binge drinking rose from 6.2 million in 2001 to 7.1 million in 2003, an increase of 0.9 million."

FAS Diagnosis

There are a range of postnatal features which are used diagnostically including facial appearance and digit effects.

In addition, there are under development a number of different techniques which may be useful in the future for prenatal diagnosis.

Pregnancy characteristics of women giving birth to children with fetal alcohol syndrome in Far North Queensland.[10] "There is the potential to identify prospectively women presenting for antenatal care who are heavy drinkers and risk FAS in their infants, using the self-reported information about alcohol intake already being collected by our service; such women may then be offered specific interventions to try to reduce alcohol consumption in pregnancy."

Facial Appearance of FAS

Some, or all, of the following facial features are associated with FAS. There has also been a recent study to develop an automated facial analysis technique.[11]

FASface.jpg FAS facial features[1]
  • Microcephaly - leads to small head circumference
  • Palpebral fissure - short opening of eye
  • Epicanthal folds - fold of skin at inside of corner of eye
  • Midface - flat
  • Ears - curve at top part of outer ear is underdeveloped and folded over parallel to curve beneath. Gives the appearance of a "railroad track"
  • Nasal Bridge - low
  • Philtrum - Indistinct, vertical grooves between nose and mouth
  • Upper Lip - thin
  • Micrognathia - small jaw

FAS Digital Effects

In addition to the distinct facial effects, there may also be abnormalities associated with the digits, fingers or toes.

  • Camptodactyly - permanent flexion contracture of a finger or toe.
  • Clinodactyly - permanent curving of the fifth finger (usually toward the other fingers) also seen for other fingers or toes.
  • Palmar crease - transverse flexion crease of the palm close to the fingers, described as "Hockey stick", widens like the end of a hockey stick and ends between the second and third fingers.


Guidelines

2013 German Guidelines

Diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS): German guideline version 2013[4] "Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) belongs to the umbrella of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and affects 0.02-0.8% of all annual births with a high number of undetected cases. The aim of the German guideline version 2013 is to provide objectively evaluated, evidence-based, clinically relevant and easily applicable diagnostic criteria for the full picture FAS. The following diagnostic criteria for FAS resulted: at least one deficit of growth, three defined facial characteristics and one functional or structural anomaly of the central nervous system. Confirmation of intrauterine alcohol exposure is not considered as a prerequisite for FAS diagnosis. The German guideline presented here constitutes an unbiased evidence-based approach to the diagnosis of patients with fetal alcohol syndrome. It includes a practical pocket guide FAS for a quick overview of the diagnostic workup in everyday clinical work."

There were 6 key recommendations.

2009 Australia Draft Guidelines

26 August 2008 Draft Australian alcohol guidelines for low-risk drinking[12] "Following the initial consideration by the NHMRC Council, NHRMC is finalising the NHMRC Australian alcohol guidelines for low risk drinking, including the latest research. The Council is expected to consider them again in late 2008."

  • Pregnancy characteristics of women giving birth to children with fetal alcohol syndrome in Far North Queensland. [13] "There is the potential to identify prospectively women presenting for antenatal care who are heavy drinkers and risk FAS in their infants, using the self-reported information about alcohol intake already being collected by our service; such women may then be offered specific interventions to try to reduce alcohol consumption in pregnancy."

Links: Draft Australian alcohol guidelines for low-risk drinking | National Alcohol Strategy Publications | National Alcohol Strategy 2001 to 2003-04 Occasional Paper

2005 USA Guidelines

2005 USA Guidelines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Prevention Team, Division of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities[14]


FAS USA guideline sm.jpg

Publication by national task force (USA)[15]

2005 Canadian Guidelines

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: Canadian guidelines for diagnosis[16] "The guidelines are based on widespread consultation of expert practitioners and partners in the field. The guidelines have been organized into 7 categories: screening and referral; the physical examination and differential diagnosis; the neurobehavioural assessment; and treatment and follow-up; maternal alcohol history in pregnancy; diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial FAS and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder; and harmonization of Institute of Medicine and 4-Digit Diagnostic Code approaches. The diagnosis requires a comprehensive history and physical and neurobehavioural assessments; a multidisciplinary approach is necessary."

Finland

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in Finland: clinical delineation of 77 older children and adolescents.[17] "We have recently completed dysmorphology examination and parent/guardian interviews of the 77 children in the Finnish cohort. ...Although 11% were born prematurely, 70% demonstrated prenatal growth deficiency, and 45% were microcephalic. Other than growth deficits and the cardinal facial features, the most common major and minor anomalies noted were: camptodactyly (55%), "hockey stick" or other altered palmar creases (51%), refractive errors (40%), strabismus (38%), dental crowding (43%), nail hypoplasia (38%), GU anomalies (22%), and congenital heart defects (18%), "Railroad track" ears were not observed in this population."

Brain Development

Mouse Face Phenotypes following Ethanol Exposure
Mouse Face Phenotypes following Ethanol Exposure[18]


New brain imaging techniques have allowed greater insight into the effects of alcohol on the brain. In FAS children this includes qualitative and quantitative studies of the postnatal brain including changes include anatomical displacements (corpus callosum) and changes in the neural layer (gray matter) density of the brain.

Abnormal cortical thickness and brain-behavior correlation patterns in individuals with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.[19] "Significant cortical thickness excesses of up to 1.2 mm were observed in the FASD subjects in large areas of bilateral temporal, bilateral inferior parietal, and right frontal regions."

Teratogenic effects of alcohol: a decade of brain imaging.[20] "Results indicated displacements in the corpus callosum, increased gray matter densities in both hemispheres in the perisylvian regions, and altered gray matter asymmetry in portions of the temporal lobes in the brains of alcohol-exposed subjects."

Sensory Development

Prenatal alcohol exposure delays the development of the cortical barrel field in neonatal rats.[21] "...our model system to examine the effect of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on early somatosensory cortical development. ....These findings suggest that PAE delays the development of the somatosensory cortex (SI); such delays may interfere with timing and formation of cortical circuits."

Bone Development

Binge alcohol exposure during all three trimesters alters bone strength and growth in fetal sheep.[22] "Maternal bones were not different among groups. The higher alcohol dose resulted in reduced fetal femoral bone strength, whereas the tibial bone strength was lower when compared with the normal control subjects. In contrast, the lower alcohol dose increased fetal femoral strength compared to the normal control subjects. The alcohol-exposed fetal bones also tended to exhibit reduced lengths."

Mouse Model

Mouse maternal ethanol skull effects.png
Variable midfacial dysmorphism and microcephaly in a/a offspring of mothers that consumed ethanol during gestation.[23]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Daniel J Wattendorf, Maximilian Muenke Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Am Fam Physician: 2005, 72(2);279-82, 285 PMID:16050451
  2. L M Hoffman, W M Kulyk Alcohol promotes in vitro chondrogenesis in embryonic facial mesenchyme. Int. J. Dev. Biol.: 1999, 43(2);167-74 PMID:10235393
  3. Hani El Shawa, Charles W Abbott, Kelly J Huffman Prenatal Ethanol Exposure Disrupts Intraneocortical Circuitry, Cortical Gene Expression, and Behavior in a Mouse Model of FASD. J. Neurosci.: 2013, 33(48);18893-905 PMID:24285895
  4. 4.0 4.1 Mirjam N Landgraf, Monika Nothacker, Florian Heinen Diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS): German guideline version 2013. Eur. J. Paediatr. Neurol.: 2013; PMID:23618613
  5. Stephanie Clark Health initiatives by Indigenous people in Australia. Lancet: 2011, 377(9783);2066-7 PMID:21684368 | Lancet
  6. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2008. Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2006–07: report on the National Minimum Data Set. Drug treatment series no. 8. Cat. no. HSE 59. Canberra: AIHW.
  7. Jennifer D Thomas, Feng C Zhou, Cynthia J M Kane Proceedings of the 2008 annual meeting of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group. Alcohol: 2009, 43(4);333-9 PMID:19560631
  8. 8.0 8.1 Bertrand J, Floyd RL, Weber MK, O'Connor M, Riley EP, Johnson KA, Cohen DE, National Task Force on FAS/FAE. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Guidelines for Referral and Diagnosis. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2004. PDF
  9. James Tsai, R Louise Floyd, Jacquelyn Bertrand Tracking binge drinking among U.S. childbearing-age women. Prev Med: 2007, 44(4);298-302 PMID:17150249
  10. Katherine L Coyne, Caroline M de Costa, Richard J Heazlewood, Helen C Newman Pregnancy characteristics of women giving birth to children with fetal alcohol syndrome in Far North Queensland. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol: 2008, 48(3);240-7 PMID:18532953
  11. S Fang, J McLaughlin, J Fang, J Huang, I Autti-Rämö, A Fagerlund, S W Jacobson, L K Robinson, H E Hoyme, S N Mattson, E Riley, F Zhou, R Ward, E S Moore, T Foroud, Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Automated diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome using 3D facial image analysis. Orthod Craniofac Res: 2008, 11(3);162-71 PMID:18713153
  12. NHMRC Website alcohol guidelines
  13. Katherine L Coyne, Caroline M de Costa, Richard J Heazlewood, Helen C Newman Pregnancy characteristics of women giving birth to children with fetal alcohol syndrome in Far North Queensland. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol: 2008, 48(3);240-7 PMID:18532953
  14. Jacquelyn Bertrand, Louise L Floyd, Mary Kate Weber, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Prevention Team, Division of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Guidelines for identifying and referring persons with fetal alcohol syndrome. MMWR Recomm Rep: 2005, 54(RR-11);1-14 PMID:16251866
  15. FAS Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Guidelines for Referral and Diagnosis." Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2004. Bertrand J, Floyd RL, Weber MK, O'Connor M, Riley EP, Johnson KA, Cohen DE, National Task Force on FAS/FAE.
  16. Albert E Chudley, Julianne Conry, Jocelynn L Cook, Christine Loock, Ted Rosales, Nicole LeBlanc, Public Health Agency of Canada's National Advisory Committee on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: Canadian guidelines for diagnosis. CMAJ: 2005, 172(5 Suppl);S1-S21 PMID:15738468
  17. Ilona Autti-Rämö, Ase Fagerlund, Nina Ervalahti, Leena Loimu, Marit Korkman, H Eugene Hoyme Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in Finland: clinical delineation of 77 older children and adolescents. Am. J. Med. Genet. A: 2006, 140(2);137-43 PMID:16353236
  18. Robert J Lipinski, Peter Hammond, Shonagh K O'Leary-Moore, Jacob J Ament, Stephen J Pecevich, Yi Jiang, Francois Budin, Scott E Parnell, Michael Suttie, Elizabeth A Godin, Joshua L Everson, Deborah B Dehart, Ipek Oguz, Hunter T Holloway, Martin A Styner, G Allan Johnson, Kathleen K Sulik Ethanol-induced face-brain dysmorphology patterns are correlative and exposure-stage dependent. PLoS ONE: 2012, 7(8);e43067 PMID:22937012
  19. Elizabeth R Sowell, Sarah N Mattson, Eric Kan, Paul M Thompson, Edward P Riley, Arthur W Toga Abnormal cortical thickness and brain-behavior correlation patterns in individuals with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Cereb. Cortex: 2008, 18(1);136-44 PMID:17443018
  20. Edward P Riley, Christie L McGee, Elizabeth R Sowell Teratogenic effects of alcohol: a decade of brain imaging. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet: 2004, 127C(1);35-41 PMID:15095470
  21. Cecilia P Margret, Cheng X Li, Tyson D Chappell, Andrea J Elberger, Shannon G Matta, Robert S Waters Prenatal alcohol exposure delays the development of the cortical barrel field in neonatal rats. Exp Brain Res: 2006, 172(1);1-13 PMID:16506013
  22. Jayanth Ramadoss, Harry A Hogan, Jon C Given, James R West, Timothy A Cudd Binge alcohol exposure during all three trimesters alters bone strength and growth in fetal sheep. Alcohol: 2006, 38(3);185-92 PMID:16905445
  23. Nina Kaminen-Ahola, Arttu Ahola, Murat Maga, Kylie-Ann Mallitt, Paul Fahey, Timothy C Cox, Emma Whitelaw, Suyinn Chong Maternal ethanol consumption alters the epigenotype and the phenotype of offspring in a mouse model. PLoS Genet.: 2010, 6(1);e1000811 PMID:20084100 | PLoS

Reviews

Reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Edward P Riley, Christie L McGee Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: an overview with emphasis on changes in brain and behavior. Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood): 2005, 230(6);357-65 PMID:15956765

Laura A Stokowski Fetal alcohol syndrome: new guidelines for referral and diagnosis. Adv Neonatal Care: 2004, 4(6);324 PMID:15609253

Kathleen K Sulik Genesis of alcohol-induced craniofacial dysmorphism. Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood): 2005, 230(6);366-75 PMID:15956766

Linda M Caley, Charlotte Kramer, Luther K Robinson Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. J Sch Nurs: 2005, 21(3);139-46 PMID:15898848

H Eugene Hoyme, Philip A May, Wendy O Kalberg, Piyadasa Kodituwakku, J Phillip Gossage, Phyllis M Trujillo, David G Buckley, Joseph H Miller, Alfredo S Aragon, Nathaniel Khaole, Denis L Viljoen, Kenneth Lyons Jones, Luther K Robinson A practical clinical approach to diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: clarification of the 1996 institute of medicine criteria. Pediatrics: 2005, 115(1);39-47 PMID:15629980

C M O'Leary Fetal alcohol syndrome: diagnosis, epidemiology, and developmental outcomes. J Paediatr Child Health: 2004, 40(1-2);2-7 PMID:14717994

Larry W Eustace, Duck-Hee Kang, David Coombs Fetal alcohol syndrome: a growing concern for health care professionals. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs: 2003, 32(2);215-21 PMID:12685673

P A May, J P Gossage Estimating the prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome. A summary. Alcohol Res Health: 2001, 25(3);159-67 PMID:11810953


Bertrand J, Floyd RL, Weber MK, O'Connor M, Riley EP, Johnson KA, Cohen DE. National Task Force on FAS/FAE. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Guidelines for Referral and Diagnosis. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2004.

Reviews Alcohol Tissue Damage

Alexandre E Medina, Ary S Ramoa Early alcohol exposure impairs ocular dominance plasticity throughout the critical period. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res.: 2005, 157(1);107-11 PMID:15939092

Alexandre E Medina, Thomas E Krahe, David M Coppola, Ary S Ramoa Neonatal alcohol exposure induces long-lasting impairment of visual cortical plasticity in ferrets. J. Neurosci.: 2003, 23(31);10002-12 PMID:14602814

V B Patel, H J Why, P J Richardson, V R Preedy The effects of alcohol on the heart. Adverse Drug React Toxicol Rev: 1997, 16(1);15-43 PMID:9192055

M V Apte, I D Norton, J S Wilson Ethanol induced acinar cell injury. Alcohol Alcohol Suppl: 1994, 2;365-8 PMID:8974357


Reviews Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters

Daphne Chan, Daniela Caprara, Phillip Blanchette, Julia Klein, Gideon Koren Recent developments in meconium and hair testing methods for the confirmation of gestational exposures to alcohol and tobacco smoke. Clin. Biochem.: 2004, 37(6);429-38 PMID:15183290

Robert Swift Direct measurement of alcohol and its metabolites. Addiction: 2003, 98 Suppl 2;73-80 PMID:14984244

Britt L Soderberg, Raneem O Salem, Catherine A Best, Joanne E Cluette-Brown, Michael Laposata Fatty acid ethyl esters. Ethanol metabolites that reflect ethanol intake. Am. J. Clin. Pathol.: 2003, 119 Suppl;S94-9 PMID:12951847

Catherine A Best, Michael Laposata Fatty acid ethyl esters: toxic non-oxidative metabolites of ethanol and markers of ethanol intake. Front. Biosci.: 2003, 8;e202-17 PMID:12456329

Frank Musshoff Chromatographic methods for the determination of markers of chronic and acute alcohol consumption. J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.: 2002, 781(1-2);457-80 PMID:12450674

C R Sirtori, C Galli N-3 fatty acids and diabetes. Biomed. Pharmacother.: 2002, 56(8);397-406 PMID:12442912

Michael Laposata, Ali Hasaba, Catherine A Best, Danita M Yoerger, Brendan M McQuillan, Raneem O Salem, Majed A Refaai, Britt L Soderberg Fatty acid ethyl esters: recent observations. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids: 2002, 67(2-3);193-6 PMID:12324241

Gideon Koren, Daphne Chan, Julia Klein, Tatiana Karaskov Estimation of fetal exposure to drugs of abuse, environmental tobacco smoke, and ethanol. Ther Drug Monit: 2002, 24(1);23-5 PMID:11805717

D P Agarwal Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol metabolizing enzymes. Pathol. Biol.: 2001, 49(9);703-9 PMID:11762132

B L Soderberg, M Laposata Fatty acid ethyl esters: markers of ethanol intake. Am Clin Lab: 2001, 20(8);18-20 PMID:11586934

M Laposata Fatty acid ethyl esters: current facts and speculations. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids: 1999, 60(5-6);313-5 PMID:10471114

M E Beckemeier, P S Bora Fatty acid ethyl esters: potentially toxic products of myocardial ethanol metabolism. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.: 1998, 30(11);2487-94 PMID:9925383

M Laposata Fatty acid ethyl esters: ethanol metabolites which mediate ethanol-induced organ damage and serve as markers of ethanol intake. Prog. Lipid Res.: 1998, 37(5);307-16 PMID:10209651

J De Jersey, T Treloar Biosynthesis and possible pathological significance of fatty acid ethyl esters. Alcohol Alcohol Suppl: 1994, 2;171-6 PMID:8974332

P S Bora, L G Lange Molecular mechanism of ethanol metabolism by human brain to fatty acid ethyl esters. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.: 1993, 17(1);28-30 PMID:8452205


Articles

Maria Serrano, Mingda Han, Pilar Brinez, Kersti K Linask Fetal alcohol syndrome: cardiac birth defects in mice and prevention with folate. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.: 2010, 203(1);75.e7-75.e15 PMID:20451895 (More? Folic Acid and Neural Tube Defects) Scott E Parnell, Shonagh K O'Leary-Moore, Elizabeth A Godin, Deborah B Dehart, Brice W Johnson, G Allan Johnson, Martin A Styner, Kathleen K Sulik Magnetic resonance microscopy defines ethanol-induced brain abnormalities in prenatal mice: effects of acute insult on gestational day 8. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.: 2009, 33(6);1001-11 PMID:19302087 | Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research Ernesta M Meintjes, Joseph L Jacobson, Christopher D Molteno, J Christopher Gatenby, Christopher Warton, Christopher J Cannistraci, H Eugene Hoyme, Luther K Robinson, Nathaniel Khaole, John C Gore, Sandra W Jacobson An FMRI study of number processing in children with fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.: 2010, 34(8);1450-64 PMID:20528824

(More? Molecular Development - Epigenetics)

S Fang, J McLaughlin, J Fang, J Huang, I Autti-Rämö, A Fagerlund, S W Jacobson, L K Robinson, H E Hoyme, S N Mattson, E Riley, F Zhou, R Ward, E S Moore, T Foroud, Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Automated diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome using 3D facial image analysis. Orthod Craniofac Res: 2008, 11(3);162-71 PMID:18713153

Katherine L Coyne, Caroline M de Costa, Richard J Heazlewood, Helen C Newman Pregnancy characteristics of women giving birth to children with fetal alcohol syndrome in Far North Queensland. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol: 2008, 48(3);240-7 PMID:18532953

Sandra W Jacobson, Mark E Stanton, Christopher D Molteno, Matthew J Burden, Douglas S Fuller, H Eugene Hoyme, Luther K Robinson, Nathaniel Khaole, Joseph L Jacobson Impaired eyeblink conditioning in children with fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.: 2008, 32(2);365-72 PMID:18162064

Jonty Rothstein, Richard Heazlewood, Marnie Fraser, Paediatric Outreach Service Health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in remote Far North Queensland: findings of the Paediatric Outreach Service. Med. J. Aust.: 2007, 186(10);519-21 PMID:17516899

Kenneth P Stoller Quantification of neurocognitive changes before, during, and after hyperbaric oxygen therapy in a case of fetal alcohol syndrome. Pediatrics: 2005, 116(4);e586-91 PMID:16166387

M Endres, L Toso, R Roberson, J Park, D Abebe, S Poggi, C Y Spong Prevention of alcohol-induced developmental delays and learning abnormalities in a model of fetal alcohol syndrome. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.: 2005, 193(3 Pt 2);1028-34 PMID:16157106

H Eugene Hoyme, Philip A May, Wendy O Kalberg, Piyadasa Kodituwakku, J Phillip Gossage, Phyllis M Trujillo, David G Buckley, Joseph H Miller, Alfredo S Aragon, Nathaniel Khaole, Denis L Viljoen, Kenneth Lyons Jones, Luther K Robinson A practical clinical approach to diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: clarification of the 1996 institute of medicine criteria. Pediatrics: 2005, 115(1);39-47 PMID:15629980


Search Pubmed

June 2010 "fetal alcohol syndrome" All (3475) Review (611) Free Full Text (396) "fetal alcohol spectrum disorders" All (306) Review (65) Free Full Text (84)

Search Pubmed: fetal alcohol syndrome | fetal alcohol effects | fetal alcohol spectrum disorders


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Books on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

A selection of recent general public information books on FAS and children with FAS, available from various internet commercial suppliers (search using the book title). Please note that this listing does not reflect an endorsement of the book or its content and is provided for educational purposes only.

  • The Challenge of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, by Ann Streissguth (editor) and Jonathan Kanter (editor)
  • Recognizing and Managing Children With Fetal Alcohol Syndrome-Fetal Alcohol Effects, by Brenda McCreight
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Effects: Strategies for Professionals, by Diane Malbin
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Guide for Families and Communities, by Ann Pytkowicz Streissguth
  • The Best I Can Be: Living with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome-Effects, by Liz Kulp and Jodee Kulp
  • The Broken Cord, by Michael Dorris
  • Our FAScinating Journey: Keys to Brain Potential Along the Path of Prental Brain Injury, by Jodee Kulp
  • Fantastic Antone Grows Up: Adolescents and Adults With Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, by Judith Kleinfeld (editor), Barbara Morse (editor) and Siobhan Wescott (editor)

Internet supplier link: Amazon

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2014) Embryology Abnormal Development - Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Retrieved August 31, 2014, from https://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Abnormal_Development_-_Fetal_Alcohol_Syndrome

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© Dr Mark Hill 2014, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G